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While this editorial is directed to the 

citizens of the United States of America, and 

to those residing in the state of Utah, particularly, 

the principles found herein apply to free peoples 

wherever the Church is found. 

Ours is a Ricli 


by President David 0. McKay 

July is usually a hot month, but it is a glorious 
month. On two days in that month, in Utah, we 
have opportunity to pay tribute to the founders of 
the Nation and to the founders of Utah. It is well 
that we do so. 

On the Fourth of July, we join in celebrating the 
signing of the Declaration of Independence. How 
glorious it would be on that day in every home in 
the United States 6L America, in each heart in every 
home, if not in words, the inhabitants of this country 
would say: "I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the 
United States of America and to the Republic for 
which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, 
with liberty and justice for all." 

I believe that in the hearts of the majority of 
the inhabitants of this great country that feeling of 
loyalty persists. 

If we would make the world better, let us foster 
a keener appreciation of the freedom and liberty 
guaranteed by the government of the United States, 
as framed by the founders of this nation. There 
are some self-proclaimed progressives who cry that 
such old-time adherence is out-of-date. But there 
are some fundamental principles of this Republic 
which, like eternal truths, never get out-of-date; 
and which are applicable at all times to liberty -loving 
peoples. Such are the underlying principles of the 
Constitution, a document framed by patriotic, free- 
dom-loving men, who we declare were inspired by 
the Lord. 

Members of the Church should have nothing to 
do with secret combinations and groups antagonistic 
to the Constitutional Law of the land, which the 

(For Course 7, lessons of September 22 and 29: "What It Means 
To Be a Pioneer" and "The Pioneers in Your Family"; for Course 11, 
lessons of July through October; and of special interest to Pioneer 
descendants and citizens of countries.) 

Lord ". . . suffered to be established"; and which 
"... should be maintained for the rights and pro- 
tection of all flesh, according to just and holy prin- 

"That every man may act in doctrine and prin- 
ciple pertaining to futurity, according to the moral 
agency which I have given unto him, that every 
man may be accountable for his own sins in the day 
of judgment. 

"Therefore, it is not right that any man should 
be in bondage one to another. 

"And for this purpose have I established the 
Constitution of this land, by the hands of wise 
men whom I raised up unto this very purpose, and 
redeemed the land by the shedding of blood." (Doc- 
trine and Covenants 101:77-80.) 

Of course, there are errors in government which 
some would correct; certainly there are manifest 
injustices and inequalities, and there always will be 
such in any government in the management of which 
enter the frailties of human nature. If you want 
changes, go to the polls on election day, express 
yourself as an American citizen, and thank the Lord 
for the privilege that is yours to have a say as to 
who shall serve you in public office. 

Next to being one in worshiping God, there is 
nothing in this world upon which the Church should 
be more united than in upholding and defending the 
Constitution of the United States. 

It was faith that braved Columbus to sail on 
and on into the unknown horizon until he discov- 
ered a new land. It was faith in God as a Loving 
Father — who, through inspiration and revelation, 
guides those who seek Him in sincerity. It was in 
defense of liberty to worship God as conscience 

JULY 1 963 


dictates that impelled the Mormon Pioneers to estab- 
lish settlements in a forbidding, defiant western 
desert. They believed in the Fatherhood of God, 
the brotherhood of man, the divineness of nature, 
and the eternal verities of honor, duty, and self- 

Notwithstanding the warnings of the desolation 
of the country, and the plea to go on to more 
productive climes, there was that assurance in Presi- 
dent Brigham Young's mind which had greater in- 
fluence upon him than the trapper's experience of 
unproductivity and of monthly frosts, and more 
influential than the glowing description of the Cali- 
fornia coast. Greater than human judgment, tow- 
ering above man's experience, was the great leader's 
trust in God. 

As President Young and the main body of the 
Pioneers came out of Emigration Canyon into the 
valley of the Great Salt Lake 116 years ago, they 
gazed upon a barren landscape so uninviting and 
desolate that one of the three women in the com- 
pany, out of sheer disappointment and hopelessness, 
broke down and wept. Truly to her and to others 
of the company, it must have seemed impossible that 
in such a desolate place could be fulfilled the proph- 
ecy of their first great leader, Joseph Smith, that 
the Saints "would become a mighty people in the 
midst of the Rocky Mountains." And yet, in our 
day, that prophecy has become a reality. 

When they arrived in the valley, to quote the 
words of President Young, they "prayed over the 
land, and dedicated it and the water, air, and every- 
thing pertaining to them unto the Lord, and the 
smiles of heaven rested upon the land and it be- 
came productive, . . . There never has been a land, 
from the days of Adam until now, that has been 
blessed more than this land has been blessed by 
our Father in heaven; and it will still be blessed 
more and more, if we are faithful and humble, and 
thankful to God for the wheat and the corn, the 
oats, the fruit, the vegetables, the cattle, and every- 
thing He bestows upon us, and try to use them for 
the building up of His Kingdom on earth." 

The noblest ideal of those honored Pioneers, and 
the noblest ideal in the Church today, is the ideal 
of service. 

Each day before they started out on the trail, 
they had their prayers either in the wagon or around 
the circle. Every family in every wagon had its 

prayers. The second thing which they had to do was 
to see that their muskets were properly loaded. The 
driver would carry his musket across his knees with 
the firelock ready; those who walked at the side of 
their teams carried the musket on the arm, in prep- 
aration for any eventuality. And the third instruction 
was, "Let every man be as considerate and as inter- 
ested in his neighbor's cattle as in his own." 

Service — rendering service to each other. They 
helped one another in adversity, shared with the 
hungry the last loaf of bread, gave of their time and 
means for the upbuilding of the community, and on 
not a few occasions offered their lives for the truth. 
Thus they exemplified in their teachings the two 
great commandments: ". . . Thou shalt love the 
Lord thy God with all thy heart, with all thy might, 
mind, and strength; . . . [and] . . . Thou shalt love 
thy neighbor as thyself. ..." (Doctrine and Cove- 
nants 59:5, 6.) 

Truly, our Pioneers cherished two great ideals 
which, I think, are the most worthwhile ideals, for 
they represent all that we can take back to God 
when we leave; and that time will surely come. 

First is the character that is developed by adher- 
ence to these principles; and that is in harmony with 
the greatest of the revelations given, and given only 
through the Prophet Joseph: "For behold, this is my 
work and my glory— to bring to pass the immortal- 
ity and eternal life of man." (Moses 1:39.) 

And how else may that become so except by 
approaching as best we can the character of the 
one perfect Being who ever walked the earth, Christ, 
our Redeemer. 

The second is the service you have rendered man- 
kind. ". . . Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one 
of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it 
unto me." (Matthew 25:40.) 

The best way to honor the memory of our in- 
trepid Pioneers on the twenty-fourth of July, and 
on every other day of our lives, is not merely by 
words but by emulating their deeds. If we do 
that, we will obey the principles of the Gospel of 
Jesus Christ, as restored in this Dispensation. 

Ours is a rich heritage. The wealth inherited 
must neither be buried nor squandered, but should 
be handed down to posterity with a tenfold increase. 

May we ever emulate the virtues and spiritual 
aspirations of our Pioneer Fathers! 

Library File Reference: Pioneers — Mormon. 



How Do You Make 
Your Assignments? 

by General Superintendent George R. Hill 

One of the greatest Sunday School teachers I 
ever had was a humble, unschooled, but always well- 
prepared woman who loved children and flowers; 
she was Sister Zebina Alleman of Springville. "Aunt 
Bine" we boys all called her. There were about 15 
boys— 8, 9, and 10 years of age — in her class. Of 
the several Sunday School teachers I had during 
childhood and youth, I remember only two; and she 
was my favorite. 

We usually rounded her corner on Main Street 
going to and coming from school. She was fre- 
quently outside, tenderly caring for her cherished 
flowers as we passed. She never failed to give us 
boys a cheery greeting and seldom failed to com- 
ment on how well we had done with our particular 
Sunday School assignments, always in such a way 
as to call to our forgetful minds our next Sunday's 

How we boys loved to prepare the assignments 
she gave! We always knew of the unbounded ap- 
preciation and praise that the filling of these as- 
signments would bring to us. She never forgot to 
call for each assignment. What a teacher! 

1 IP 


Taking me to the Bible, Papa would turn to the New Testa- 
ment and say: "Now, my boy, it is the third book over. . . ." 

Sixty-nine years ago we did not have manuals nor 
teachers' supplements, nor the numerous teaching 
aids of today. But if "Aunt Bine" did not have these 
modern teaching facilities, she did have her Bible. 
She was fluently conversant with that. She had her 
Book of Mormon, which showed signs of much use. 
She had The Juvenile Instructor which came reg- 
ularly every month, and of which she made wide 
use for stories and illustrative material. 

"Georgie," she would say, "will you learn and 
recite for us next Sunday Luke, chapter 11 and ninth 

Doing the Assignment 

After dinner I would go to Papa's desk, where 
our family Bible was kept. This was a very large 
book. After thumbing through it for a few minutes 
I would call out, "Papa where in the Bible is Luke?" 

Papa would turn to the New Testament and say: 
"Now, my boy, it is the third book over — Matthew, 
Mark, Luke." 

I would turn to Luke 11:9 and read: "And I say 
unto you, Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and 
ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto 

"Mama, what does this verse mean?" 

"Read the first 13 verses of that chapter and 
see if you can't tell," she would answer. 

The next Sunday, among others, I would be 
called to give my assignment. I would give it and 
tell what I thought Jesus meant by it and would be 
given the usual and looked-for pat on the back. Is 
it any wonder that I have a fondness for the pur- 
poseful memorization of scripture? 

Today we have many facilities for helping us 
prepare and give pupil- centered Sunday School les- 
sons which our Pioneer forefathers did not have. We 
have graded courses — 15 of them — each intended to 
play a specific part in teaching the Gospel. Each 
should take the pupil thoughtfully and regularly 
into the Standard Works of the Church. "Search the 
scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: 
and they are they which testify of me." (John 5:39.) 

A testimony is the product of the pupil's own 
seeking. The teacher can, at best, provide only the 
motivation. How, then, can teachers assure them- 

JULY 1963 


selves that their teaching is going over? How can 
they measure the degree to which it is causing the 
pupils to seek and study things out for themselves? 
The Lord said to Oliver Cowdery, "Behold, you 
have not understood; you have supposed that I would 
give it unto you, when you took no thought save it 
was to ask me. But, behold, I say unto you, that 
you must study it out in your mind; then you must 
ask me if it be right, and if it is right I will cause 
that your bosom shall burn within you; therefore, 
you shall feel that it is right. But if it be not right 
you shall have no such feelings, but you shall have 
a stupor of thought that shall cause you to forget 
the thing which is wrong. ..." (Doctrine and Cov- 
enants 9:7-10.) 

Important- Teacher Function 

President John T. Wahlquist wrote in Chapter 
Nine of Teaching as the Direction of Activities: 

"The assignment is one of the most important 
of the teacher's functions. The teacher who gives 
last-minute assignments in ignorance of the contents 
of the next lesson is simply setting the stage for 
another class session which will violate the basic 
principles of self-activity, interest, and apperception. 
If children learn by their own activity, they must 
be prepared for active partcipation. . . . An assign- 
ment by the unprepared teacher will mean a class 
session by an unprepared group. 

"Preparation for the assignment should be as 
exacting as preparation for the lesson at hand. . . . 

". . . An effective assignment will consume con- 
siderable time, possibly as much as ten to 20 min- 
utes. A last-minute gesture, such as 'Take the next 
three pages,' or 'Our next topic is the Book of Job,' 
is absolutely futile. ..." 

These kinds of assignments, if adequately given, 
are effective in getting pupil preparation and partici- 
pation in Sunday School classes: 

1. A general assignment which all members are 
expected to prepare. 

2. Individual assignments given to several mem- 
bers. These can usually be filled by short well-pre- 
pared talks, one to two and a half minutes in length. 

3. Group or project assignments which may re- 
quire more than a week for committees to study and 

To be effective, assignments should be precise, 
clear-cut and well-motivated. 

All individual and group assignments, and speci- 
fied parts of general assignments, should be called 
for by the teacher on the assigned Sunday. 

A skillful teacher frequently appoints committees 
of class members to study and recommend assign- 
ments for the month ahead. Devices such as this, 
which cause study and subsequent participation, add 
interest to the class and opportunities for the growth 
of testimony. 

Library File Reference: Teachers and Teaching. 


President David O. McKay 

Associate Editohs: 

General Superintendent George R. Hill 

Lorin F. Wheelwright 

Business Manager: 
Richard E. Folland 

Managing Editor: 
Boyd O. Hatch 

Production Editor: 
Virgil B. Smith 

Manuscript Editor: 
Paul R. Hoopes 

Research Editor: 
H. George Bickerstaff 

Art Director: 
Sherman T. Martin 

Circulation Manager: 
Joan Barber 

Instructor Secretary: 
Donna MacPherson 

Consultant : 
A. William Lund 

Instructor Committee: 

Chairman Lorin F. Wheelwright, Richard E. 
Folland, Marie F. Felt, A. William Lund, Ken- 
neth S. Bennion, H. Aldous Dixon, Leland H. 
Monson, Alexander Schreiner, Vernon J. Lee- 
Master, Claribel W. Aldous, Henry Eyring, 
Clarence Tyndall, Wallace G. Bennett, Camille 
W. Halliday, Margaret Hopkinson, Edith M. 
Nash, Alva H. Parry, Bernard S. Walker, Paul 
B. Tanner, Arthur D. Browne, Howard S. 
Bennion, Herald L. Carlston, O. Preston Rob- 
inson, Bertrand F. Harrison, G. Robert Ruff, 
Anthony I. Bentley, Marshall T. Burton, Cal- 
vin C. Cook, A. Hamer Reiser, Clarence L. 
Madsen, J. Elliot Cameron. 

Published by the Deseret Sunday School Union, 
135 South State Street, Salt Lake City 11, Utah, 
the first day of every month at Salt Lake City, 
Utah. Entered at Salt Lake City Post Office as 
second class matter acceptable for mailing at 
special rate of postage provided in Section 1103, 
Act of Oct. 3, 1917, authorized on July 8, 1928. 
Copyright 1963, by the Deseret Sunday School 
Union Board. All rights reserved. 

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is $3.75. 



The Dead 
Sea Scrolls 

Some Questions and Answers 
by Hugh Nibley 

What Are the Dead Sea Scrolls? 

Ancient religious writings found in caves and 
ruins in the Judaean desert. 

When Were They Discovered? 

The first in the summer of 1947. Other major 
discoveries were in 1952 and 1956. More than 200 
caves have been explored, and the search still goes on. 

Where Were They Discovered? 

The most important finds have come from 11 
caves in the precipitous walls of the Wadi Qumran, 
a gorge on the western shores of the Dead Sea, about 
a mile from the water's edge near the north end, 
seven miles south of Jericho. Also important are 
the four huge caves in the Wadi Murabba'at, 12 miles 
southwest of Qumran; and the ruins of Khirbet Mird, 
on a hilltop about five miles west-southwest of Qum- 
ran. Important finds have come from other hiding 
places known only to the Bedouins. 

How Were They Discovered and by Whom? 

The first was accidentally discovered by a shep- 
herd boy of the semi-nomadic Arabic tribe of the 
Ta'amireh. Most subsequent discoveries have been 
made by members of that tribe, who have now be- 
come expert in the excavation and preservation of 
the documents. At first, clandestine digging (by 
dealers and monks as well as Arabs) destroyed much 

In 1949 the experts withdrew, convinced that 
there was no more to be found; but the Arabs con- 
tinued searching with such success that in 1951 for- 
mal expeditions were organized by the British Army 
and Jordan Government. The walls of the Wadi 
Qumran were systematically explored, leading to 
the discovery in 1952 of Cave IV — the richest find 
of all — and the disclosure by the Arabs of the great 
caves of the Wadi Murrabba'at. 

Accounts of the discovery and procurement of 
the various scrolls are complicated and conflicting. 

(For Course 19, lessons of September 8 and October 6: "The 
Bible as a Whole (the Dead Sea Scrolls)" and "The Book of Mor- 
mon — Modern Discoveries"; and of general interest.) 

Caves in the precipitous walls of the Wadi Qumran have pro- 
duced some of the most important finds of Dead Sea Scrolls. 

How Many Scrolls Are There? 

In Cave IV alone thousands of fragments of 
more than 382 manuscripts were found. In all more 
than 500 manuscripts have come from Qumran in 
tens of thousands of leather fragments. 

Who Owns the Scrolls and How Were They Acquired? 

The first four scrolls were acquired by the Syriah 
Orthodox Metropolitan of Jerusalem (the story is 
very obscure) who took them to America and later 
sold them to the Hebrew University for a reputed 
quarter million dollars. Professor Sukenic, of the 
Hebrew University, picked up some fragments in a 
Jerusalem antique shop. 

The Jordan Government has legal right to the 
finds, and being short of funds, has sold them at a 
fixed rate of one pound ($2.80) per square centi- 
meter. Before the owners can claim them they must 
go to the Palestine Archaeological Museum to be 
cleaned, photographed, and edited for publication. 

Dead Sea manuscripts have been acquired by Mc- 
Gill, Manchester, and Heidelberg Universities; by 
the McCormick Theological Seminary, and the Vati- 
can Library. New finds are acquired from the Arabs 
through the agency of intermediate dealers; the chan- 
nels are devious and often shady. 

What Is the Age of the Scrolls? 

It ranges from the seventh century B.C. (one 

fragment) , to A.D. 68. Texts of Samuel, Jeremiah, 

and Exodus may date from about 200 B.C.; but most 

of the Biblical scrolls come from the first century B.C. 

(Continued on following page.) 

JULY 1963 


View of Khirbet Qumran on the north- 
western shore of Dead Sea and 1 mile 
inland. It is 7 miles south of Jericho. 


Cave No. IV, the "Essenes Main Li- 
brary," contained thousands of frag- 
ments from more than 382 manuscripts. 

Essenes lived in individual tents and 
caves, but studied and worked in these 
communal quarters on top of the cliffs. 

What Are the Subjects Treated in the Scrolls? 

A quarter of all the manuscripts are Biblical, 
every book of the Old Testament except Esther being 
represented. The most numerous manuscripts are 
of Deuteronomy, Isaiah, and the Psalms. The first 
discovery was a Hebrew text of Isaiah, 1,000 years 
older than any known. The Apocryphal works are 
richly represented, including two books in crypto- 
graphic writing, a Book of Enoch, and a treatise on 
the Book of Moses. The most famous non-Biblical 
scrolls are the Manual of Discipline, the Habakkuk 
Commentary, the Thanksgiving Psalms, the ancient 
ritual Order of Battle, the Genesis Apocryphon (a 
fuller story of Genesis, including a new account of 
Abraham in Egypt) , a "Description of the New Jeru- 
salem," and a lost Commentary on Job. The investi- 
gation and publication of such writings has just 

Who Wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls? 

A society of pious "apocalyptic" Jews, now gen- 
erally identified with the Essenes. 

What Light Do the Scrolls Throw on the Subject of 
Christian Origins? 

That is largely a matter of interpretation, but 
by now scholars are generally agreed that the scrolls 
teach us for the first time: (1) the background of 
John the Baptist; (2) the exact date of Easter; (3) 
the nature arid origin of the organization of the Prim- 
itive Church; (4) the significance of the strange lan- 
guage and teachings of John; (5) the origin of Gnos- 
ticism; (6) the nature of the Church as a continua- 
tion of an ancient apocalyptic and Messianic tradi- 
tion ignored by Rabbinic Judaism; (7) the nature 
of the strange terminology of the New Testament 
as continuing an ancient tradition; (8) of the Chris- 
tian community as following the pattern of earlier 
apocalyptic communities in the desert; and (9) the 
ancient Hebrew-apocalyptic background of the writ- 
ings of Paul. 

What Light Do the Scrolls Throw on The Book of 

This, too, is a matter of interpretation. But if 
there is any validity to the thousands of studies 

appearing on parallels between the scrolls and var- 
ious Biblical and historical writings, the perfectly 
staggering parallels between The Book of Mormon 
and the scrolls cannot be brushed aside nor explained 
away. Here are a few: 

1. Nine years ago this writer pointed out (Im- 
provement Era, September, 1954) that the pe- 
culiar manner of burying the scrolls indicated 
that they were laid away for the purpose of 
coming forth in a future Dispensation. Since 
then a number of scholars (e.g., Malik, Dan- 
ielou) have confirmed this impression. The 
tradition of the sacred buried record meets us 
full-blown in the similar preservation of the 
scrolls and The Book of Mormon. 

2. Lehi is clearly described as one of the prophets 
driven from Jerusalem because of his Messianic 
preaching, and seeking refuge in the desert, 
where he intended to found a community. The 
community of Qumran was led into the desert 
by such a man centuries later, and there is con- 
siderable evidence that this was an estab- 
lished and traditional routine of great antiq- 

3. In a heretofore unparalleled situation we find 
the Qumran people offering animal sacrifice 
and observing the Law of Moses under the di- 
rection of legitimate priests, and yet at the 
same time observing ordinances of a strangely 
Christian nature. It is a situation "difficult 
to visualize" (Cross), and yet its counterpart 
is found in The Book of Mormon. 

4. The Qumran people denounce the Jews at 
Jerusalem for their corruption and laxity in 
observing the Law. They respect the temple 
and its traditions but despise the leaders of the 
Jews who have driven them from Jerusalem. 
This is exactly the attitude of Nephi. 

5. They keep the Law of Moses but in everything 
anticipate the coming of the Messiah and the 
New Covenant. Their sacrament is "a liturgi- 
cal anticipation of the Messianic banquet" 
(Cross), as are their baptisms and their white 
garments — all belong to "a church of antici- 
pation." This parallels The Book of Mormon 
situation exactly. 



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Two oxidized copper scrolls are being 
uncovered from the protecting dirt of 
the cave which had provided shelter. 

The sectarian "Manual of Discipline" is 
an example of one of the scrolls written 
on leather in ancient Hebrew script. 

The "Scrollery" at the Palestine Arch- 
aeological Museum where scroll frag- 
ments are gathered, restored, examined. 

6. They see a peculiar significance in going out 
into the wilderness and in choosing a site where 
they can establish a large and elaborate system 
of tanks and basins for washings and baptisms. 
One thinks immediately of Alma's community 
in the wilderness at the Waters of Mormon. 

7. There they were organized into a general con- 
gregation with a council of twelve laymen head- 
ed by three priests. Scholars have agreed that 
we have here a definite tie-in with the organi- 
zation of the Early Church. Its closest parallel 
is in Christ's organization of the Church in 3 

8. The Dead Sea writings are full of angels, proph- 
ets, ancient writings, and prophecies of things 
to come, especially the coming of the Messiah, 
the literal resurrection of the dead, and the 
destruction of the world by fire. These things 
are treated in a peculiar "apocalyptic" way that 
is much closer to The Book of Mormon than 
to the Bible. 

9. Some scholars believe the greatest single reve- 
lation of the scrolls is the existence of a great 
prophetic tradition that has been completely 
forgotten. Its greatest representative is the 
mysterious "Teacher of Righteousness" or 
"Righteous Teacher," a major prophet whose 
very existence was unknown until 1950. How 
could a figure of such immense importance both 
to Christians and Jews have been completely 
forgotten? It was because his name was blotted 
out by Rabbinical or "official" Jews, who per- 
secuted him severely and drove him into the 
desert because he preached the coming of the 

He was of priestly descent, being of the line 
of Zadok, another mysterious prophet, whom 
some believed lived at the time of Moses and 
who is the type of the true priest who looked 
forward to the Messiah. Allegro believes that 
the Teacher of Righteousness himself may have 
been called Zadok. The important thing is the 
discovery not of controversial individuals but 
an undeniable tradition of a line of persecuted 
Messianic prophets. This is in perfect agree- 
ment with the Zenock and Zenos tradition in 

The Book of Mormon. Since one of the com- 
monest phenomena in the aprocryphal litera- 
ture, including the scrolls, is the frequent dup- 
lication and corruption of proper names, it 
might not be too much to suggest that Zadok 
might even be a corruption of Zenock, since of 
course in Hebrew the vowels are not written 
and the Hebrew "d" resembles the "n" closely 
enough (in the archaic script) to have been 
confused by an early copyist — a very common 
type of mistake. Be that as it may, the peculiar 
type of prophet represented by Zenock and 
Zenos is now fully established by the scrolls. 
10. For the first time we now learn of the ancient 
Jewish background of (1) the theological lan- 
guage of the New Testament and Christian 
apocrypha. (2) their eschatological doctrines, 
and (3) their organizational and liturgical in- 
stitutions. (Cross). All three receive their full- 
est exposition in 3 Nephi, where the Messiah 
himself comes and organizes His Church on the 
foundations already laid for it. 

The strongest accusation against The Book 

of Mormon in the past has always been the 

presence in it of New Testament language, 

doctrines, and ordinances among people living 

in pre-Christian times. Today this objection 

not only vanishes but now furnishes powerful 

evidence supporting The Book of Mormon. The 

scrolls show a highly developed Messianism, 

very close to that of the New Testament. For 

example, it is now seen that Paul writes in the 

authentic Qumran pre-Christian style. 

The most read, most available current books on 

the Dead Sea Scrolls are the following paperbacks, 

from which the above information was gleaned: 

Allegro, John Marco, The Dead Sea Scrolls (Pelican 

Cross, Frank M., The Ancient Library of Qumran 
(Anchor Books, 1961). 

Danielou, Jean, The Dea Sea Scrolls and Primitive Chris- 
tianity (Mentor, 1958). 

Davies, A. P., The Meaning of the Dea Sea Scrolls 
(Signet, 1956) . 

Gaster, Theod. H., The Dead Sea Scriptures in English 
(Doubleday Anchor, 1957) . 

Schonfield, Hugh J., Secrets of the Dead Sea Scrolls 
(A. S.Barnes, 1957). 

Library File Reference: Dead Sea Scrolls. 

JULY 1963 




All Aboard 

for Family 


by Calvin C. Cook 

One Saturday morning in spring, our family 
arose and anxiously prepared for a day of fun and 
pleasure together. We planned ahead to do something 
that would not cost a lot, but that would be different 
and could be done in one day. The purpose was to 
have experiences as a family that would be long 
remembered and forever cherished. 

We hurriedly ate our breakfast, and all five chil- 
dren quickly climbed into the family car. First one 
would ask, "Are we going to the zoo?" 

Then another, "Are we going up the canyon for 
a picnic?" 

And still another, who said, "Let's go swimming." 
None could guess what this day's adventure would 

Out of the driveway and down the street, we 
started. We were not going to the zoo — the zoo was 
in another direction. We could not be going for a 
picnic because we had no food with us. Swimming 
was eliminated — no swimming suits. 

"Where could our parents be taking us?" our 
children reasoned together. Our car passed through 
town and over some railroad tracks and stopped in 
front of the railroad train depot. None of the chil- 
dren had ever been on a train. (They had only come 
to the depot to see the missionaries of the ward leave 
for their missions and to say good-by to all their 
loved ones.) But when I bought tickets for the fam- 
ily and hurried the family so we would not miss the 
train, it was different. 

Just then a man in a black cap called, "All 
aboard"; and our whole family climbed up into the 
train. I looked into the faces of five precious chil- 
dren and a lovely mother and saw happiness shining 

(For Course 3, lesson of September 1, "When We Believe, We 
Obey"; for Course 5, lesson of September 1, "Pure in Heart"; and 
for Course 1, lesson of September 22, "We are Kind to Each Other 
at Home.") 

When a man in a black cap called, "All aboard," the group ► 
climbed up the railroad car steps for a family adventure. 

through pure beautiful eyes. I thought to myself, 
"What are these souls worth to me?" 

Our oldest girl wanted to know how far we 
were going as the train jerked and started to roll 
upon the steel tracks. "Only one hour to the next 
town," was the answer. So we climbed up in the 
dome car to see as much as we could as sky and 
fields passed our view. 

This was a new experience, and each child re- 
sponded in an excited manner. Dinner in the dining 
car again made their faces light up with excitement, 
and the ride back later in the day convinced these 
children that Mother and I knew how to enjoy our 

I am sure that many fathers and mothers who 
do not know the Gospel have learned to enjoy their 
children. But the knowledge given to man by God, 
known as the Gospel, has increased that joy to the 
degree that the "cup runneth over." When parents 
know without doubt that each child that is born 

The Cook family hurriedly ate breakfast; and then with ex- 
citement bubbling over, the seven climbed into their car. 



to them is eternal and can eternally grow, or may 
seek those things which are degrading and lead to 
corruption, then every effort is important to lead 
them in paths of righteousness and help them to love 
goodness. Parents must show their children the 
ways of righteousness, not just tell them. True joy 
comes through pure love; and pure love comes 
through actions, not words only. 

If we love our children, we should be determined 
to live those principles that God has proclaimed will 
bring eternal happiness. Love will radiate from each 
parent, and ways should be planned so that com- 
munication will be open between parents and chil- 

The light of the Gospel teaches that one of the 
main purposes of this mortal life is to learn how to 
be a true mother or father by following the example 
of our Father in heaven. Knowledge of this does 
not mean that all our experiences will be joyful; but 
for every worthwhile accomplishment of each child, 

the cup will run over. Life will become more abun- 
dant with eternal reasons for living and teaching 
others to live with faith and virtue. 

Saying prayers with the family is important. At- 
tendance at Sunday School and sacrament meeting 
with the family are more than duties. Primary and 
MIA offer opportunities for your children that you 
would not want them to miss in life. Preparing each 
child for temple marriage and for missionary service 
are great joys in life. 

Nearness of each parent to his Father in heaven, 
and the spirit of Christ radiating through example, 
not just words, are the best ways to taste of that 
fruit Lehi experienced when he said: "And as I par- 
took of the fruit thereof it filled my soul with ex- 
ceeding great joy; wherefore, I began to be desirous 
that my family should partake of it also; for I knew 
that it was desirable above all other fruit." (1 Nephi 

Library File Reference : Family Life. 

As the train started to roll upon the steel tracks, everyone 
climbed up in the dome car to see as much as possible. On 

the back seat (L. to R.) are Elizabeth, Kathleen, and Dad. 
Seated in front are Jonathan, Michelle, Mother, and Julie. 

JULY 1 963 


IN his first major league campaign, Kenny Hubbs, 
20-year-old California "Mormon," and 1962 
National League Rookie-of-the-Year for the Chicago 
Cubs, set two all-time fielding records for second 

The slender, all-around athlete bobbled a routine 
grounder in a June 13th game last year. But for the 
next 78 games he was more than equal to every ball 
hit in his direction. Then, on September 5th, during 
the seventy-ninth game, Hubbs made a bad throw 
which put a halt to his flawless fielding skein. But 
he had already handled 418 consecutive fielding 
chances without erring. This was four better than 
the old mark set by Bobby Doerr, the great Boston 
Red Sox infielder, in 1948. Hubbs's 78 games without 
a miscue eclipsed Doerr's record of 73. 

To likable, clean-cut Kenneth Douglas Hubbs, 
1962 saw the fulfillment of at least a portion of his 
dream of becoming a great major league star. He 
had certainly made the grade during his freshman 
year; and he was ready to face the so-called "sopho- 
more jinx," which plagues so many a "first-year 
flash." As the 1963 season opened, he was firmly en- 
trenched in the second base slot for the Cubs. 

An all-around athlete (four-letter winner at Cali- 
fornia's Col ton High School; all- American prep 

(For Course 29, lessons of October 27 and November 3: "Health 
and Happiness" and "The Way to Health"; for Course 27, lesson of 
September 22, "Physical Well-Being"; for Course 24, lessons of 
August 4, 11, and 18: "Joys of Healthful Living," "Physical and 
Mental Health," and "Physical Well-Being"; and for Course 9, lessons 
throughout year on a leader being righteous, obeying the Gospel, 
and setting a good example.) 

quarterback in 1958), Hubbs credits much of his 
success in athletics to his Church, and to "living my 

Born December 23, 1941, in Riverside, California, 
to "Mormon" parents, Hubbs learned early in life 
to live the Word of Wisdom. He abstains from the 
use of tobacco, liquor, coffee, and tea because he 
knows how detrimental they can be to his physical 
and mental condition. "Being physically and mental- 
ly alert is half the battle in making good in baseball, 
or in any other endeavor," he maintains, "and I 
believe the Word of Wisdom is the key to fitness." 

Thus, his love for and natural ability in sports, 
combined with his religious belief that the body is 
a "temple of God" and should be treated as such, 
have boosted him along the trail of athletic achieve- 

While young Kenny Hubbs was lettering in base- 
ball, football, basketball, and track, and serving as 
student body president of Colton High, he was also 
earning attendance and activity awards as a priest- 
hood-bearing member of the Colton Ward. He earned 
individual Aaronic Priesthood awards seven times 
and was active in the Sunday School and MIA pro- 
grams. Now an elder, he serves as a Sunday School 
teacher in the Colton Ward during the off-season 
months. When the Cubs are playing in Chicago, he 
attends Sunday meetings at the Windy City's North 
Shore First Ward; and, when he is on the road, he 
looks up the nearest ward chapel on Sundays. 

Kenny's church activity comes natural. He was 
raised in a home where church attendance and par- 


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ticipation was stressed. His father, Eulis Hubbs, who 
has been confined to a wheelchair with polio since 
Kenny was two years old, is general secretary of the 
Senior Aaronic Priesthood Committee in the Colton 
Ward. His mother, Dorothy Preece Hubbs, is activity 
counselor in the San Bernardino Stake Young 
Women's MIA. 

Kenny is the second of five boys in the Hubbs 
family. His older brother, Keith, played football at 
Brigham Young University. Other members of the 
Hubbs family are Gary, and twins Kirk and Kraig. 

Although confined to his wheelchair, Brother 
Hubbs has always encouraged and actively supported 
his sons' athletic endeavors. He pitched to Kenny 
for batting practice when the boy was growing up. 

When Kenny graduated from high school in 1959, 
he turned down dozens of scholarship offers from 
universities and colleges to sign a contract with the 
Cubs. That fall, however, he did enroll at Brigham 
Young University, but attended only one quarter. 
He is now sandwiching in his education between 
baseball seasons at a college in San Bernardino. 

His first baseball assignment was to Morristown 
of the Appalachian League, where he spent the 1959 
season playing outfield and shortstop. He played 
the entire 1960 season as a shortstop — first for San 
Antonio of the Texas League, then for Lancaster of 
the Eastern League. After a good year with Wen- 
atchee of the Northern League in 1961, the parent 
Chicago team called him up at the tail end of the 
season and he played in ten big league games. 

But 1962 was his year. The same cannot be said 
for the Cubs; however, for the only thing that kept 
them out of the National League cellar was the 
record losing streak of the last-place New York 
Mets. But Hubbs was great. He batted .260, a re- 
spectable average for a 20-year-old youngster facing 
big league pitching for the first time. Then came 
his fielding records, Rookie-of-the-Year laurels, and 
the coveted National League Gold Glove award for 
fielding excellence (the first time this award has 
been given to a rookie). 

He initiated a triple play — one of baseball's 
rarities — in the last game of the season, to cap a 
memorable year. In the season finale against the 
Mets, Hubbs made a spectacular over-the-shoulder 
catch of a blooper hit by Joe Pignatano. He rifted 
the ball to Ernie Banks to catch a runner off first 
base. Banks then whipped it to Andre Rodgers cover- 
ing second to double off another runner. 

Thus ended an impressive first-year performance 
by this young "Mormon" who firmly believes, 
"Everything I have achieved, I owe to my Church." 

There are not enough young men like Kenny 
Hubbs in the world today. But we can be thankful 
there are some. 

— Don LeFevre.* 

*Brother LeFevre, a professional journalist, serves the Church 
now as YMMIA activity counselor and Senior Aaronic Priesthood 
adviser, Bountful Seventh Ward. He graduated from the University 
of Utah with a B.A. degree in Journalism; and he has several years 
of professional writing with the Salt Lake Tribune, David W. Evans 
& Associates, and the Church Information Service. Brother LeFevre 
is married to Bonnie Bloom and they have a B^i-year-old boy. 
Library Pile Reference: Mormons and Mormonism. 


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by Elder Howard W. Hunter of the Council of the Twelve 

I have been impressed tonight, as I am sure you 
have been, by the great influence good people can 
have upon their associates. This has been beauti- 
fully portrayed before us in the dramatic production 
just presented. As I listened to it, I thought of the 
words of our Saviour, the theme of this Sunday 
School Conference: ". . . By their fruits ye shall 
know them." (Matthew 7:20.) 

It is natural, I suppose, for us to be interested 
in contrasts. While listening to this program, I have 
been doing just that. I have been thinking of the 
contrasts involved in the thought, ". . . by their 
fruits ye shall know them." 

You will recall the incident of our Lord cursing 
the fig tree for not fulfilling its natural purposes. It 
withered and died. That fig tree bore no fruit and 
is known to us by its barrenness. There are trees 
such as the mock orange and the snowberry that 
bear fruit attractive to the eye, yet bitter to the 
taste. Although they do no harm, they do very little 
good. There are trees also which have fruit that is 
poisonous, and we avoid them. How different it is 
with the cherry or the peach or the orange trees. 
They are known in every land around the world be- 
cause of the delicious fruit they bear. This reminds 
us of the fruit of the glorious tree in father Lehi's 
dream, and the effect it had upon all those who par- 
took of it. 

Contrasts are just as marked in the animal world 
where dispositions are different as the night is from 
the light of day. Dogs have been known as man's 
best friend, yet some are surly, growling, and vicious, 
as contrasted with Rin Tin Tin and Lassie of tele- 
vision fame. We read the stories of noble animals 
when we were young, but we learned there were 
also those which are destructive and are feared. 

A friend of mine tells of a beautiful bay pony he 
owned. He called her "Annie." She was lively and 
seemed to possess unbounded energy, yet she was 
gentle and kind, and obedient to the rein. Little 
children could pet her or ride her with perfect safety. 
She was the object of happy memories to all who 
had been around her, both young and old. At the 

(For Course 9, lesson of September 15, "A Leader Produces 
Good Fruit") 

same time his father owned a large strong horse 
called "Dick." Dick, when he would use his strength, 
could pull a tremendous load; but he was undepend- 
able. If he felt so inclined, he would balk even with 
a light load. He was selfish and would not let other 
horses eat nor drink with him. Viciously, he would 
drive them away. Little children would never go 
near him and grownups would avoid him. 

The complexity of human life is even more 
marked than the plant or animal kingdom. It is 
such that we cannot hope to unfold all of its myster- 
ies. Only God can do that. But we can observe 
certain phenomena inherent in life, and profit by 
such observation. 

Most of us are interested in the contrasting types 
of individuals. There comes to my mind such char- 
acters as Attila and George Washington, Socrates 
and the narrow bigots who opposed him, Abraham 
Lincoln and the secessionists, Joseph Smith and his 
assassins, Christ and Judas Iscariot, as representa- 
tives of those who bore good or evil fruit. What has 
been their fruit? Attila destroyed half of the world; 
Washington helped found a nation of freedom and 
liberty. Socrates championed freedom of thought 
and speech; his enemies curtailed it. Abraham 
Lincoln preserved a nation in freedom and liberty; 
the secessionists tried to destroy it. Joseph Smith 
gave his life to preserve the establishment of the 
kingdom of God on earth; his assassins attempted 
to prevent it. The Messiah established God's king- 
dom among men; Judas Iscariot betrayed both the 
Saviour of the world and the cause for which He 

History has told, clearly and well, the honor 
which has come to the positive, the constructive, the 
beneficial aspects of life. It has told equally well 
the fate of those who have represented the opposite 
aspects. In our sober moments, as we ponder these 
matters, what decisions have we determined to ma]se? 
By our fruits we shall be known. 

Before me now I see some of the choice spirits 
of the earth — faithful Sunday School workers. Your 
very presence here indicates this truth. I see you, 
after this conference, scattered over wide fields of 
labor. I try to visualize each one of you at work 



in your own specific assignment. I wonder what 
kind of fruit your labor will bring forth? Will some 
of that fruit be blighted because you have failed to 
till or cultivate the soil entrusted to your care; or 
will all the soil be cultivated so it will yield a maxi- 
mum of good fruit? 

Out in your respective wards and stakes, to 
which you will shortly return, reside many of our 
Father's children. Like you, they are choice in His 
sight; but, unlike you, many are inexperienced and 
many are new in the Gospel. Your responsibility 
toward them is great indeed. Their lives are pliable, 
easily bent, easily molded, easily led, if you can gain 
their confidence and win their hearts. You are their 
"shepherd." You must guide them to "green pas- 

You must be even as Peter, the chief apostle. 
Do you not thrill at the story, how after His resur- 
rection, Jesus walked along the shore of Galilee with 
some of His disciples, and how He turned to Peter 
and said, "Peter, lovest thou me?" Can you not hear 
Peter's meek answer, "Yea, Lord, thou knowest I 
love thee." Do you remember how the good Master 
replied to Peter's declaration, laying on him a task 

Address given at the Conference of the 
Deseret Sunday School Union, April 7, 1963. 

and a responsibility the world has been slow to under- 
stand? The few words of that reply were — "Feed 
my lambs," And then — "Feed my sheep." How these 
words keep ringing in our ears. Brothers and sisters 
do you not hear Him saying to you, John and Mary 
or Robert or Jane, "Lovest thou me?" and you an- 
swering, "Yea, Lord, thou knowest I love thee." Then 
that never forgettable reply of His to you, "Feed 
my lambs." 

What a challenge, what a joyous task, what a 
sacred responsibility is yours now as you return to 
your fields of labor! How thoughtful, how consider- 
ate, how kind, how tender, how pure in heart, how 
possessed of that unselfish love as our Lord possessed, 
how humble, how prayerful you must be as you 
assume anew your work to feed the lambs as the 
Lord is telling you to do! 

Now my brothers and sisters, when you return to 
continue your labors with those precious souls en- 
trusted to your care, what reward will you expect for 
your efforts? I shall not suggest one, but I will ask 
you another question. Tell me, what reward did the 
Saviour exact and what reward did He receive for 
the great atoning sacrifice He made for mankind? 

"And if it so be that you should labor all your days 
. . . and bring, save it be one soul unto me, how great 
shall be your joy with him in the kingdom of my 
Father! And now, if your joy will be great with one 
soul that you have brought unto me into the king- 
dom of my Father, how great will be your joy if you 
should bring many souls unto me!" (Doctrine and 
Covenants 18:15, 16.) 

Need we say more about a reward for one who 
labors in the vineyard of the Lord? Surely in this 
great work, your dedicated services will not be want- 
ing and you will say to yourself: "Let my own works 
praise me"; and we and the world will say, "By your 
good works do we know you." 

May the Lord continue to bless each of you in 
your great responsibilities as you serve His children. 
I know He lives, in the name of Jesus Christ, Amen. 

Library File Reference: Teachers and Teaching. 


Camera Clix: photo — front cover. 
Alvin Gittins: art — 229. 
Dale Kilbourn: art— 231, 247. 
Sherman T. Martin: art— 233, 242. 

250, layouts. 
Vontella Kimball: photos — 234, 235. 

Ed Maryon: art— 266, 267. 

Bill Johnson: art — 249, outside back 

Eugene Spiro: art — center spread. 
Dorothy P. Handley: art — c enter 


Don Knight: photo — 256. 

Rose Thomas Graham: photos — 261. 

Ralph T. Clark: photo — 262. 

Leland VanWagoner: photos — 236, 237. 

Charles J. Jacobsen: art — inside back 


JULY 1963 






In search of freedom, great civilizations have 
been bom and powerful religious movements have 
taken root. Many of the world's most inspired writ- 
ings and many of the greatest artistic creations have 
been an expression of man's yearnings for freedom. 

The genesis of these yearnings is easily recogniz- 
able. Blessed with an intelligence, man cannot find 
contentment nor fulfillment when his thoughts are 
repressed or his actions are controlled. Many animals 
can accept regimentation quite naturally. But man 
can never be fully satisfied unless there is freedom 
to be himself — to give expression to his instinct for 
thinking, creating, working, and worshiping, ac- 
cording to the promptings of his own soul. 

The bondage of the children of Israel in Egypt 
was not intolerable because of the yoke of heavy 
work placed upon them nor even the physical hard- 
ships they were forced to suffer. If this had been 
their only burden, they may well have endured it 
indefinitely. But the determination to revolt against 
the Pharaoh came about because he was trying to 
control their thoughts and personal life. He was 
trying to deny them the right to worship God in 
accordance with the dictates of their own conscience. 
This they could not tolerate. 

Freedom in the New World 

The birth of democracy in the United States is 
another well-known story in man's quest for freedom. 
Every school child can recall the immortal words 
of Patrick Henry, "Give me liberty or give me 
death." It was not alone the imposition of unjust 
taxes, nor the quartering of large bodies of armed 
troops in this country, nor the cutting off of trade 
with other parts of the world that caused the re- 
bellion — as offensive as these were to the colonists. 
It was the total impact of all those multitude of 
abuses inflicted by the king of England to the point 
where the people felt that they were no longer free 
to call their lives — and more especially, their 
thoughts — their own. 

We honor the dedicated people who risked or 
gave their lives for freedom. In our day we are 
united in our determination to stand together for 
the preservation of national liberty and religious 
freedom, even though it may confront us once again 
with the choice of liberty or death. The traitorous 
slogan, "Better Red than dead," is no more accept- 
able with Americans [including Canadians as well 
as British, Australian, and New Zealand patriots] to- 
day than it would have been at any time in our 
[their] history. 

(For Course 29, lesson of September 15, "Why Is Man Here"; 
for Course 27, lessons of August 11 and November 3: "How Much 
Freedom?" and "Free Agency and Choice"; and for Course 9, les- 
son of October 20, "A Leader Is a Champion of Liberty.") 




There is another kind of freedom, however, which 
is vital to all of us but is not so easily recognized. 
It is a kind of freedom which we do not read much 
about and which cannot be guaranteed by law. It 
is more subtle, more intangible, more personal; 
but perhaps it is the ultimate freedom man has 
always sought. lit is the freedom to be one's best self 
— the freedom to give expression to one's inner feel- 
ings and hopes and abilities without inhibitions, 
doubts, or tensions. It is the freedom to think, to 
dream, to create, to love, to live, in response to one's 
natural inclinations. It is the freedom to achieve to 
the fullest extent of one's inherent abilities without 
self-imposed restrictions. 

Freedom for the Individual 

This is a freedom that is frequently hard to 
come by. Some people — fortunate people — enjoy 
this freedom instinctively. Their whole life is a sym- 
phony of happiness because they are open to all 
experiences that come their way; others, unfortu- 
nately, have unconsciously built a wall of hesitation 
and doubt around their lives until at last they are 
prisoners of themselves. 

Most such people are very much aware of their 
self-created problems. In their desperation they are 
afraid they will not be able to find a pathway out 
of their troubles. They know they lack freedom, but 
the more they struggle to find it the more they be- 
come bound up in self-doubt. Indeed, their greatest 
fear is the feeling of fear itself. The constant prac- 
tice of allowing negative thoughts to exist in their 
minds has spun a web around their lives which they 
fear they will be unable to break. As one writer 
stated, "Habits are at first only thin spider webs; 
practiced long enough, they become steel cables." 
A great share of Christ's mission was devoted 
to helping people meet problems of this kind. Was 
not this one of the reasons He continually stressed 
the dignity and significance and uniqueness of every 
person? He wanted every individual to believe in 
himself. No one was unimportant to Jesus. He went 
among the sinners, the sick, the aged, the children, 
the strangers. He rejoiced more in restoring some- 
one to health — whether physical or spiritual — than 
He did in preaching to the faithful. Anything He 
could do to give new hope to someone who was 
despairing of life became a special opportunity. 

The Saviour Exercised Freedom 

Consider His statement in the Gospel of John: 
"... I am come that they may have life, and that 
they might have it more abundantly." (John 10: 
10.) He did not come on earth to destroy, to punish, 
to judge. He taught people how to achieve the abun- 

dant life through an outpouring of themselves in serv- 
ice to their fellow men. His own life was made rich 
and full because He was open to every experience 
of life, open to every challenge, open to every feeling. 
He did not retreat from any danger, whether it was 
the waves of Galilee or the persecution of mobs. 
With His faith in God and His quiet confidence in 
himself, He met all problems openly and freely. 

He gave us a meaningful message in His parable 
of the talents. You will remember that a man gave 
a single talent to one of his servants; to another, 
two talents; and to a third, five talents. Then the 
man went into a far country. When he returned, he 
asked each servant what he had done with the 
talents given to him. The servant who had been 
given five talents reported that he had put them 
to work and was now able to give ten talents back 
to his master. Likewise, the second servant who had 
received the two talents reported that he had 
doubled them. "Well done, thou good and faithful 
servant [s]," the Master said, "Thou hast been faith- 
ful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over 
many things: enter thou into the joy of thy Lord." 
(Matthew 25:21.) The servant, however, who had 
received the single talent reported that under the 
great responsibility he felt, he had buried the talent 
and now was able to return the same talent to his 
master. Thereupon the master harshly reprimanded 
the servant for not making use of what had been 
given to him, even calling him a wicked and slothful 
servant and taking away his one talent and giving 
it to the man with ten talents. 

For many years this parable bothered me. It 
seemed to be very unfair to the conservative servant 
who had taken precautions to be sure he could re- 
turn the talent that had been given to him. But 
obviously there is a deeper message behind this 
parable. The more I have thought about it, the 
clearer it seems to me that the Saviour was reminding 
us to make full use of our personal capabilities, what- 
ever they may be. He was reminding us that we 
should dare to think, to work, to act, to live abun- 
dantly. Those who tie themselves in a world of inhi- 
bitions and doubts are like the servant with one 
talent: they fail to use what they have been given. 
The greatest sin therefore could be one of omission — 
failing to release capabilities with which God has 
endowed each of us in varying degrees. 

(Continued on following page.) 

* Brother Heiner, Vice President in charge of Public Relations and 
Traffic for Kaiser Steel Corporation, Oakland, Calif., is on the high 
council of the Oakland-Berkeley Stake. He has taught Sunday School 
classes for the past 23 years, and currently teaches a Gospel Doctrine 
class. Brother Heiner was educated in Salt Lake City schools and re- 
ceived a B.S. degree from the University of Utah. Two years later, 
in 1938, he received the M.B.A. degree from the Harvard Graduate 
School of Business Administration. Brother Heiner and his wife, 
Dora, have five children and two grandchildren. 

JULY 1963 


FREEDOM QUEST (Continued.) 
Happiness Lies in Self-fulfillment 

Stephen R. Covey, president of the Irish Mission, 
wrote an essay entitled "Self-fulfillment through 
Self-expression" for the June, 1961, Instructor, The 
opening sentence reads, "The best a man can be, he 
must be." He goes on to point out that anyone who 
fails to measure up to his true capacity is denying 
himself the great happiness that comes from self- 
fulfillment. The creative person, on the other hand, 
is ". . . active and informed and curious; his body, 
responsive and well- disciplined; his emotion, loving 
and life-affirming; his behavior, genuine and spon- 
taneous and kind; his spirit and motive, noble and 

Let us turn to the animal world for a helpful 
example. Shortly before sunup each morning, the 
birds begin to sing. They do not need an alarm clock 
to remind them. Nor do they need someone to tell 
them that they are supposed to sing. As a matter 
of fact, they are so created by God that they have 
the uncontrollable instinct to sing. They burst forth 
each day "in profuse strains of unpremeditated art," 
because it is impossible for them to remain silent. 
They do not have the power of negative thought to 
choke off the urge to sing. Thus, they enjoy the 
freedom of using their God-given talents without 
artificial limitation. They are "good and faithful 
servants" indeed because they are true to their own 

This highlights the irony of man's intellectual 
power. The power to think and to worship is the 
greatest gift God has given to any form of life. It 
is this quality that gives man a soul. Yet this ability 
to think, if misdirected, can become the means by 
which an individual deprives himself of the joy of 
living. Instead of releasing his powers of creativity, 
instead of living imaginatively as the truly free soul 
lives, the individual becomes bound up with doubts 
and fears. He fails to release or make use of his 
God-given talents, however limited they may be. 

Achieving Greater Personal Freedom 

In the face of this tendency — and we probably 
all suffer from this to one degree or another — the 
overriding question is: What steps can each of us 
take to achieve greater personal freedom? 

I think I was given a clue to the answer by my 
participation two years ago at a management semi- 
nar at Brigham Young University. I was asked to 
lecture on the responsibility of management in deal- 
ing with employees. I prepared my talk on the 
general theme that it is management's responsibility 

to motivate employees. I stated that management 
should take whatever steps are necessary to organ- 
ize employees effectively, direct them, control them, 
and hold them accountable for their efforts. 

Following my presentation, I stayed around for 
several days to listen to other ideas in the field 
of management responsibility. As I heard examples 
of successful management efforts, it began to dawn 
on me that it was presumptuous of management to 
try to exercise such extensive control over its people 
as I had envisioned. I began pondering the theme 
of the conference as set by the faculty of the Uni- 
versity: "Releasing Human Potential." Gradually I 
recognized that this is management's true responsi- 
bility — to set the climate that will release the in- 
dividual to use his capabilities freely. If management 
is trying to organize and control the moves of its 
employees, then the individual becomes more cau- 
tious, more hesitant, more fearful, more reluctant 
to take a chance. 

On the other hand, if the right encouragement is 
provided, there is an inherent creative capacity in 
every individual that begins to express itself. In 
other words, management should not start on the 
premise that employees are "error-prone"; rather 
that they can be trusted to do creative things if 
they are given proper opportunity. Releasing the 
great potential inherent in every individual is the 
biggest management challenge of all. 

Believe in Yourself 

It seems to me this is also the starting point for 
personal freedom. We must believe in the inherent 
goodness of ourselves and in the inherent abilities 
of ourselves. We must assume that if we allow our 
instincts to take over, our thoughts and actions will 
be basically good. We must dare to accept ourselves, 
dare to trust ourselves, and thereby release the po- 
tential in ourselves. 

In the December, 1962, issue of Reader's Digest, 
there was a somewhat startling article by Dr. Smiley 
Blanton, director of the Religio-psychiatric Clinic, 
American Foundation of Religion and Psychiatry, 
New York City. It was entitled "The Best Prescrip- 
tion I Know." He said that When people come to 
him in desperation, they usually start by saying, 
"I have tried everything I can think of, Doctor, 
everything. What on earth shall I do now?" 

Thereupon Dr. Blanton gives them quite simple 
advice: "Don't try!" He acknowledges that this 
sounds defeatist; but he goes on to say: 

. . . Within each of us an all-wise Creator has 
placed a marvelous reservoir of courage, energy, and 
wisdom that we seldom use. This reservoir is the sub- 
(Concluded on page 246.) 




by Stephen R. Coveys 

By obedience to the principles and the ordinances 
of the eternal Gospel of Jesus Christ, man will grad- 
ually become a "partaker of the divine nature" and 
feel comfort and confidence in the presence of his 
Eternal Father and his elder Brother, the Lord Jesus 
Christ. This is the purpose of life. 

It all may be summarized in another way — growth 
towards Godhocd. When the Lord revealed that it 
was His work and His glory "... to bring to pass 
the immortality and eternal life of man," He essen- 
tially outlined the two great parts or programs or 
objectives of all that He has attempted to do among 
men since the beginning. 

The first grand part or objective is immortality, 
which was achieved through the miracle of the resur- 
rection. With the seeds of mortality or death and 
immortality or life flowing in His veins, Christ will- 
ingly laid down His own life and took it up again. 
Through His resurrection, all mankind will be resur- 
rected into immortality. 

The second grand design of the Lord is eternal 
life, which has to do with the quality of the Resur- 
rection. While immortality is a free gift to all man- 
kind, eternal life is a personal achievement by each 
individual, made possible through the Atonement of 
the Lord Jesus Christ. 

The Gospel may be studied from different points 
of view, and each makes its own valuable and unique 
contribution. The traditional viewpoints are what 
we might term the "definitional" and "legalistic." 
The definitional viewpoint involves essentially com- 
ing to a clear understanding of what various Gospel 
terms mean — such as faith, repentance, baptism, im- 
mortality, eternal life, salvation, and so forth. The 
legalistic way of thinking views God as the judge and 
jury, man as the defendant, the principles of the 
Gospel as the laws of celestial society, judgment as 
the verdict, punishment as jail or hell, and so forth. 

There is an additional, extremely fascinating and 
immensely useful study framework which we might 

(For Course 29, lesson of September 15, "Why Is Man Here?"; for 
Course 13, lesson of September 22, "Joy, the Goal of Life"; and of 
general interest.) 

*Before he was set apart to preside over the Irish Mission, 
President Covey was bishop of Brigham Young University Twelfth 
Ward, BYU Third Stake, and assistant professor of Business Manage- 
ment, BYU. He graduated from the University of Utah, and later 
he received the M.B.A. degree at the Harvard Graduate School of 
Business Administration. President Covey and his wife, Sandra 
Merrill, have two daughters and one son. 

term a behavioral viewpoint. Let us analyze eternal 
life from this viewpoint. 

In life man is immersed in various kinds of values: 
physical, social, material, family, spiritual. Life can 
be seen as a series of alternative choices within 
these value systems. Many times man finds him- 
self in conflicting situations where he must choose to 
accept one value; and, by so doing, he knowingly or 
unknowingly rejects another. 

This choosing process is the growth process. If 
a man loves God more than pleasures, he will grow 
to become like God. If he loves his worldly pleasures 
more than God, he will choose and "grow" in another 

What then is eternal life? Eternal life is essen- 
tially that quality of character and personal integrity 
achieved through Christlike service and lifetime obe- 
dience to the principles of the Gospel which enable 
an individual to be so changed — gradually and al- 
most imperceptibly, in his very nature — that his 
"confidence waxes strong in the presence of God." 
If he had not so grown from within, he would feel 
like a stranger and foreigner, and would shun the 
presence of this Perfect and Holy Being, and would 
feel more comfortable with those who have lived a 
lower order or a lower law such as found in a ter- 
restrial or a telestial level. 

What then is judgment? Judgment is the divine 
process of God revealing man to himself. We are 
only as good as we are. (See Alma 34:34.) 

There is no mystery about this business. It is 
very simple. The laws of the Gospel are the laws 
of human growth toward Godhood. The Sermon on 
the Mount contains the perfect laws of social, men- 
tal, and spiritual health. 

When Christ said that it was life eternal to know 
God, He again taught the behavioral principle that 
true knowledge is a state of being. (Study II Peter 
1:3-11, and John 7:16, 17.) 

This behavioral approach to the study of the 
Gospel reveals the transparent error and inconsist- 
ency of man-made doctrines regarding salvation and 
eternal life. Deathbed confession or mere ordinance 
work do not change man's nature. This is the reason 
Satan's plan would have failed, for there could never 
be a returning to the presence of the Eternal Father 
without a testing in the face of opposites and temp- 
tation and the continual choosing of the highest 
good over lesser goods and over evil. 

Any other approach to "salvation" ignores this 
process of growth and turns it all into some kind 
of an arbitrary and awesome mystery which, to 
many, is the hallmark of spirituality. 

From this behavioral viewpoint every principle of 

JULY ]963 


the Gospel can be prayerfully studied again, and new 
light and understanding and motivation will result. 
The blessings of God come in the form of divine 
growth and the cursing of God in the form of a lack 
of divine growth, or a growth in the opposite direc- 
tion. Repentance is simply change or growth which 
comes by confessing and forsaking. The after-life 
cursing or "hell" amounts to that kind of anguish 
which follows a clear recollection of misdeeds and 
acknowledgment that the judgment is just and self- 
chosen, with a quickened realization of the enormous 
loss and the widened gap between God's nature and 
the man's nature. "Of all the words of tongue and 
pen, the saddest are these: 'it might have been.' " 
To summarize the purposes of life from a be- 
havorial standpoint, I would suggest that every prin- 
ciple of the Gospel is so calculated that through obe- 
dience to it there is an immediate growth or blessing. 
Through continued faithfulness, sin gradually loses 

its pull and attractiveness, and man loses all desire 
for anything but continued service to mankind and 
obedience to higher and higher laws of the Gospel. 
The Saviour taught that man must be "bom again." 
Man is born of the water in baptism and is born 
of the Spirit as he obeys the injunction given at his 
confirmation ("receive the Holy Ghost") to so live 
as to receive the continued purifying and sanctifying 
and perfecting influence of the Holy Ghost. 

Man as a begotten spirit child of God has the 
laws of the Gospel implicit within his very nature. 
The revelations of the Lord through prophets merely 
make those implicit internal laws and his pre-existent 
memory (shrouded by the veil of mortality) explicit 
or open to mortal understanding and response. 

Through obedience and selfless service, man be- 
comes a "celestialized personality," and thus fulfills 
his promise and purpose. 

Library Pile Reference: Eternal Progression. 

FREEDOM QUEST (Concluded) 

conscious or, more exactly, the unconscious mind. 
Like a dynamo it furnishes the power and drive of 
our lives. This power takes many forms. What we 
call intuition, for example, is nothing but a <c still, 
small voice" from the unconscious. It is also the un- 
conscious that produces for poets, prophets, scientists 
— indeed all creative thinkers — their deepest in- 

Look Inside Yourself 

This is really a significant message. By giving up 
our conscious efforts, by "letting go" — which all of 
us are capable of doing with the proper amount of 
practice, we can start the process of rebuilding. 
"Letting go," therefore, does not mean we are quit- 
ting. Rather, it means we are releasing a hidden 
reserve that will help us meet the problems of life. 
It is the pathway to a new kind of boldness. 

This has given me an insight into the meaning of 
Christ's words when He said, "... Not my will, but 
thine, be done." (Luke 22:42.) If we surrender our- 
selves to the Lord, we are not retreating from our 
responsibilities; we are opening the windows of our 
souls whereby we gain added strength. This, after 
all, must be the secret behind the greatness of 
religious people. It is a quiet confidence built on faith 
and trust in the Lord. 

In Proverbs we are told, "Trust in the Lord with 
all thine heart; and lean not unto thine own under- 
standing. In all thy ways acknowledge Him, and He 
shall direct thy paths." (Proverbs 3:6.) Most 
of us have trouble, I believe, when we have not 
achieved a full trust in the Lord. We only partly 
trust in Him, allowing our conscious minds to become 
enmeshed in conflicts. When we dare to place our 
trust completely in the Lord, waiting for His in- 

fluence to act upon us, things gradually begin to 
assume a new sense of order in our minds. 

Trust in the Lord 

This of course does not mean the end of frustra- 
tion, conflicts, and feelings of doubt. It does mean 
a willingness to live with such feelings and to have 
faith that somehow we will be able to progress 
through the problems of the day. This openness to 
all experiences of life — rather than a constant striv- 
ing on the conscious level — will gradually lead to its 
own kind of boldness. When we are defensive, when 
we try to escape challenges of life, when we try to 
escape our own feelings, we set in motion a chain 
reaction that is inevitably destructive. William 
James, the great psychologist, once said: "A person 
does not run because he is afraid; he is afraid be- 
cause he runs." 

Yes, personal freedom may well be the ultimate 
freedom man has always sought. And — most impor- 
tant — personal freedom may be easier to achieve 
than we realize. All it really requires is to "let go," 
to give up struggling on the conscious level. In so 
doing, we shall be releas- 
ing the inherent good- 
ness and creativity of 
our subconscious minds. 
We shall be turning our 
problems over to the 
"still, small voice" of the 
Lord. And when we do 
this, we shall find a new 
peace of mind, a new 
boldness, a new creativ- 
ity, a new zest for living. 


Vice President, 

Kaiser Steel Corp. 

Library File Reference : Freedom. 



Behind the aggressive actions of children lie basic needs 
which must be met. The wise teacher will observe closely 
the behavior of each child to find out that child's needs. 



by R. DeVerl Willey* 

Of first significance to successful Sunday School 
teaching is a testimony of the truthfulness of the 
Gospel. Part of this testimony is gained through 
prayer and careful preparatory study. Of second 
significance is the love of children and the desire to 
understand them. Most in need of this love and 
understanding is the aggressive, stubborn, and ap- 
parently uninterested child who interrupts, heckles, 
and distracts his classmates. 

Let us glance into a typical Sunday School class. 
Some children may be looking at the teacher, glanc- 
ing around the room, looking at a picture or the text- 
book, scraping feet on the floor; and others may be 
sitting quietly with folded arms. Children are either 
attentive or moving in a random, aimless fashion 
without apparent cause. When the child responds to 
the teacher's voice, to a piano, a picture, or a ray of 
light from the window, there is a liberation of energy 

(For Course 27, lessons of September 1 and October 13: "Apply- 
ing Your Teaching" and "Human Relationships.") 

* Brother Willey acted for two years as head of The Department 
of Educational Psychology at the University of Utah and is now 
chairman of the Department of Elementary Education at the Univer- 
sity of Nevada. He holds a Ph.D. degree from Stanford University 
with a double major in psychology and education. He is a former 
Stake Sunday School superintendent and currently a member of the 
Reno North Stake High Council. He lives with his wife, the former 
Helen Ann Young of Salt Lake City, and their six children in Reno, 

stored up in nerve, muscle, gland, or other organic 

It follows, therefore, that a child acts always to 
meet basic needs. Every human being must find 
satisfaction for physiological needs of food, thirst, 
rest, activity, adjustment to temperature, etc., as 
well as to needs of personality. 

As an individual personality, each child feels a 
need to belong to his family, Church, or class. Basi- 
cally he also feels the need for security, self-assur- 
ance, and, above all, love. Only through a considera- 
tion of these needs can we discover the reason for a 
child's behavior. 

Aggression may be observed in rebellion against 
teacher-authority or against imposition of rules and 
regulations which thwart the satisfaction of a need. 
Rigid and autocratic practices are more likely to 
arouse aggressiveness than a less rigid democratic 
procedure. A severe, autocratic disciplinarian may 
cause an aggressive child to hide his hostility and 
employ indirect methods of disturbance. Although 
less obvious, the subtle, sly, evasive noncompliance 
with rules may be more disturbing to the class than 
open, direct defiance. 

(Concluded on following page.) 

JULY 1963 



How To Respond to an Aggressive Child 

Modern discipline recognizes that a child acts in 
accordance with some inner drive or need. Behind 
poking a boy nearby is a motive; behind giggling and 
whispering is a motive. There can be no control un- 
less the teacher "knows why." To punish a child 
because he needs to act, does not remove the need; 
it increases it. Children are aggressive because they 
feel a need for attention, recognition, belonging, af- 
fection, success, and security. The teacher should 
make every endeavor for these needs to be satisfied 
in an acceptable fashion. 

1. The aggressive child should be given a special 
amount of affection and love. 

Affection is a basic need. When children are not 
liked by teacher or classmates, they will exhibit re- 
sentment, hatred, isolationism, stubbornness, and 
hostility. On the other hand, through a person whom 
he admires, a child establishes values which form the 
basis of moral behavior. Regardless of his recogni- 
tion of teacher-disapproval he should never feel that 
he has lost the teacher's affection. One of his strong- 
est motives for action is to attract the teacher's ap- 
proval. Punishment has little to do with correction, 
but makes the child more deft and cautious in future 

2. The aggressive child should be made to feel secure. 

A feeling of security is developed largely by know- 
ing what to expect. Children have a right to two 
certainties from their teacher: First, that he will be 
consistent, unyielding, and just in upholding a code 
of desirable conduct; and, second, that he will not 
withdraw affection even though regulations are slow- 
ly learned and repeatedly broken. In any case quick 
action on the part of the teacher is necessary. Hesi- 
tancy invites the opinion that the teacher is insecure 
himself. The secure teacher is self-disciplined, con- 
trols his temper, can afford to compromise occasion- 
ally, and is fair, honest, and courteous. 

Indirectly, security is related to good class man- 
agement achieved by a prompt and economical sys- 
tem for distribution of materials, by a well-presented 
and stimulating lesson, and by a meticulous fairness 
tempered by consideration for each pupil. Firmness 
and kindness together create a desirable kind of at- 

mosphere. The firmness that becomes hard and 
sharp through anger and vindictiveness, however, 
creates an entirely different atmosphere of antagon- 
ism and resistance. 

3. The aggressive child should be given recognition. 

Many acts of misbehavior are merely attempts 
to get attention. Recognition is a basic need of every 
child, and its absence requires some kind of adjust- 
ment. Sometimes the child's adaptation may be 
detrimental and may require disciplinary action from 
the teacher. Nevertheless a child should believe his 
teacher recognizes his right to present his side of 
the story. It is unwise to consult the entire class 
about one pupil, and the teacher should avoid refer- 
ral to the superintendent except as a last effort. Do 
not magnify the importance of undesirable actions. 
Refrain from scolding, ridiculing, and denouncing. It 
is far wiser to explain to the child why his behavior 
is unacceptable. Just because a teacher explains, 
however, cannot guarantee that the child will become 
"an angel" overnight. 

4. The aggressive child should be helped to build his 

Self-esteem, self-control, feelings of independence 
are all closely related in meaning. If possible, pro- 
vide the child with some responsible task, hold indi- 
vidual conferences, and help him to understand him- 
self. It is no favor to allow him to do whatever he 
pleases; however, the teacher should prevent con- 
flicts and provide as much freedom as possible. Never 
place a child in a position where he feels he must 
"save face." 


There are always a few unusual children who 
have been so deprived of love that they are apathetic 
to affection. Unfortunately, special help from the 
Sunday School superintendent and ward bishop may 
be the only remedy. The ideal teacher is one who 
can guide the child into a self-regulating, self-con- 
trolled individual. The techniques of such guidance 
are found in helping the child through example and 
by providing affection, security, recognition, and op- 
portunity to build self-esteem. 

Library File Reference: Teachers and Teaching. 






Prophets During Times of Crises 


In critical times, great prophets have always come forth. When the tendencies of the 
time demanded crucial decisions, the Lord sent His spokesmen to ancient Israel to 
warn and guide the people. Those spokesmen gave messages to anyone among them 
(and among us) who have ears to hear, eyes to see, and hearts to understand. 

The times of crisis of old Israel came in waves involving internal weaknesses and 
external threats. The external threat of the first crisis was the expanding empire of As- 
syria in 750 to 700 B.C., during which the northern ten tribes were taken away cap- 
tive. The external threat of the second time of crisis was the spreading empire of Babylon, 
especially from 620 B. C. to 586 B. C. At that time the remainder of Israel, in Judah 
(the Southern kingdom), was also taken away into captivity. The internal condition 
that rendered the peoples of both times vulnerable to conquest was, in one word, corrup- 
tion. Debasement of motives and morals in every facet of life in which men deal with 
their fellow men and with God had left them, as it always does in all societies of men, 
impotent to survive. 

To combat trends toward corruption, the 
prophets have always tried to motivate repent- 
ance. They attempt to do so by issuing warnings, 
making promises, and indicating goals for which 
men may strive. They teach the way of life 
whereby to strive to reach the goals, and tell of 
the redemptive, saving help that the Lord will 
give to aid men to achieve them. 

As three examples of the mission and the 
message of the prophets of the Old Testament, 
consider Micah, Zephaniah, and Obadiah. Micah, 
like Isaiah, Hosea, and Amos, was a watchman 
giving warning in the time of Assyria's threat. 
Zephaniah prophesied in the days of Judah's last 
righteous king before the thirty decadent years 
that led to captivity by Babylon. Obadiah chas- 
tized Judah's cousin-peoples in the rock clefts of 
Edom, who exalted when Jerusalem was laid 
waste. What in their prophecies is pertinent to 
us today? 

Micah said that the Lord is a witness, against 
man, of the transgressions of man's corruption. 
Micah warned that God will come down and 
make such corrupt places as Samaria, capital city 
of old Israel, a heap in the field. It came to pass 
as Micah had warned. 

Micah warned of woe to all who work evil in 
the night, devising iniquity in the dark that when 
the morning light is come they may accomplish 
their designs to take away another's fields and 
oppress the erstwhile owners. He foresaw that the 
Lord would not always strive with those who 
resist His guidance. Because of those who hate 
the good and love the evil ways, he saw the sun 
go down upon the prophets and the day was 
black upon them. 

But Micah, like Isaiah, saw that toward the 
end of days again the House of God would be 
established as a source and center for His word 
from His prophets. Indeed His voice from Jeru- 
salem, His law from out of Zion, should bring 
justice, peace, and plenty at last upon the earth. 
Micah told how He that is to be Ruler in Israel, 
whose goings forth are from of old, should be 
born in Bethlehem. He plead with Israel not 
to worship in a pompous way, nor to think that 
lavish offerings would impress the Lord. He 
stated, in a few words, the way of true religious 
people: "Do justly, love mercy, and walk humbly 
with thy God." 

Zephaniah saw beyond the captivity of Judah 
to the time when the Lord would utterly consume 
all things on the face of the earth, when both 
those who have rebelled and those who say in 
their hearts that the Lord "will not do good 
neither evil unto man," shall see their wealth be- 
come a booty and their houses desolation. When 
the great day of the Lord with the trouble and 
distress in the time of the end is approaching unto 
men, Zephaniah pleads with those who will 
hearken, "Seek the Lord all ye humble of the 
earth: seek righteousness, seek humility. It may 
be ye shall be hid in the day of the Lord's anger." 

Zephaniah saw the day when all the con- 
tinents and nations shall become part of the 
Lord's kingdom, when the cleansing shall have 
been done. Then at last understanding between 
peoples shall be possible; a pure language will be 
used so that all may serve in unity when the King 
of Israel, even the Lord, reigns in power and 
glory. This Mighty One will save all who qualify. 

Obadiah in his turn saw the destruction of 
Jerusalem; and, in Edom, saw the worldly ones 
typified who rejoice because the people of the 
Lord have come to naught. He warned that those 
who have beguiled, robbed, and oppressed their 
fellow men shall themselves be oppressed for the 
violence done to their brothers. He too saw the 
day of the Lord — and saw the place of Mount 
Zion as a place of escape. Saviors shall come up 
on mount Zion, said the prophet, to judge Esau 
or the wicked; and the earth shall be the Lord's. 

In the crisis days of old or in the crisis days 
today, it is wise for all to hearken to the Lord's 
messengers. We have Moses and the prophets, 
and the teachings of the living Lord; moreover in 
this day of trial and crisis — once again with its 
temptation and threats — we have living prophets 
who bring us revelation from God to guide and 
guard us. It is well to hear the warnings, know 
the promises, and see the goals beyond all strife 
and consternation; for this shall be required of 
all those who want to qualify as members of the 
kingdom when the kingdom is the Lord's. 

— > Ellis T. Rasmussen. 

(For Course 19, lesson of August 25, "The Bible — the Old 
Testament"; and for Course 9, lesson of November 3, "A Leader 
Obeys the Lord's Prophets.") 



From Paintings A/fT/^ A T T 
by Eugene Spiro IVAXV^ZTlXJ. 



The impressionistic style of the artist comes vividly to life in these three 
separate paintings which are printed together in this issue. Each prophet — Micah, 
Zephaniah, and Obadiah — has painted into his semblance the characteristics 
which are peculiar to him alone. In the lower picture is seen the lamenting Micah. 
The upper left picture shows the visionary Zephaniah, appearing dynamic and 
alive. A still different expression is portrayed by Obadiah, upper right. 

Despite the many years separating today from the days of ancient Israel, the 
prophetic word is as valuable to us as it was when given to those Israelites. May 
mankind everywhere honor the prophetic word through good works. 

— Paul R. Hoopes. 

These three paintings of Micah, Zephaniah, and Obadiah conclude the Old 
Testament prophet series which The Instructor began in the February, 1962, issue. 
An interesting variety of presentations are planned to appear in the center spread 
section of the magazine in future issues. Each center spread illustration will be de^ 
signed to enrich specific course lessons, and Sunday School teachers should find 
many valuable teaching aids among them. 

Reproduced for The Instructor Jjy Wheel wright Lithographing Co. 

It had been 40 years since the children of Israel first left Egypt. 
It really ought not to have taken that long to journey from Egypt 
to Canaan, but God had a good reason for allowing it to be that way: 
He wanted to train the people in His way before they entered the 
Promised Land. They had lived in Egypt for a long time, and had 
learned things from the Egyptians that God wanted them to forget 


A Flannelboard Story by Marie F. Felt 

Some Israelites liked to worship idols or images 
as the Egyptians did. The Lord was not pleased; 
the people had to learn to worship only the true 
God. Some of them wanted to do only the things 
that they liked to do. Now, they were learning 
to obey God's command. Some Israelites grumbled 
and complained; others were slow and unwilling 
to obey the commandments. It was necessary for 
them to learn appreciation, helpfulness, kindness, 
and unselfishness. They must learn to acknowl- 
edge and believe in God. 

Moses had been a wonderful leader. During 
all those 40 years, he had been very close to God 
and had served Him and the people well. His 
greatest desire was to see them settled in their own 
homes in the land of Canaan, but God had other 

The Lord told him to choose Joshua to be the 
new leader of the Israelites. He Was a man whom 
God loved and trusted. One day, in front of all 
the people, Moses laid his hands upon Joshua's 
head and blessed him that he might lead the peo- 
ple as God would have him do. 

Very soon after Joshua became the leader of 
the Israelites, God spoke to him. He told Joshua 
to lead the people across the River Jordan and 

(For Course la, lesson of October 6, "Moses Becomes a Great 

into the land which He had promised them. Then 
He said a most wonderful thing, something which 
meant much to Joshua: ". . . As I was with Moses, 
so I will be with thee: I will not fail thee, nor for- 
sake thee." (Joshua 1:5.) [End of Scene I.] 

One evening, as Joshua was thinking of what 
he should do next, a strange man dressed like a 
soldier and carrying a sword came to him. Joshua 
asked him whether he was a friend or an enemy. 
The man answered that he had come ". . . as cap- 
tain of the host of the Lord. . ." (Joshua 5:14.) 
Joshua bowed down. He knew that the man must 
be a messenger of the Lord who had come to tell 
him what to do. 

The next day all the Israelites formed a big 
parade and marched around the city of Jericho. 
First came seven priests bearing seven trumpets, 
followed by those carrying the Ark of the Cove- 
nant. Then came the people. They did this same 
thing for six days. On the seventh day, the Lord 
told them to march around the city seven times 
instead of one time. "And it came to pass at the 
seventh time, when the priests blew with the trum- 
pets, Joshua said unto the people, Shout; for the 
Lord hath given you the city." (Joshua 6:16.) The 
walls of the city fell, and the Israelites marched in 
to take possession. 

As the people prepared to establish homes for 

JULY 1963 


themselves throughout the land, Joshua gave them 
this final advice: 

"Now therefore fear the Lord, and serve him 
in sincerity and in truth: and put away the gods 
which your fathers served on the other side of the 
flood, and in Egypt; and serve ye the Lord. 

"And if it seem evil unto you to serve the Lord, 



choose you this day whom ye will serve; . . . but as 
for me and my house, we will serve the Lord." 
(Joshua 24:14, 15.) 

The Bible tells us that the people did remember 
God and His goodness to them, and they loved 
and served Him as long as Joshua lived and for 
many, many years afterward. [End of Scene II.] 

References: Joshua 1, 5, 6, 25. 

How To Present the Flannel board Story 

Characters and Props Needed for This Presentation Are: 
Moses as a 120-year-old man (OT68.) 
Joshua, about 80 years old, in standing position. (OT69.) 
A captain of the host of the Lord. (OT70.) 
Joshua, in kneeling position. (OT71.) 
The Walls of Jericho. (OT73.) 
Soldiers marching away. (OT75.) 
Priests blowing ram's horns. (OT74.) 
Other priests carrying the Ark of the Covenant, and a 
large group of Israelites marching behind. (OT72.) 

Order of Episodes: 

Scene I: (Joshua being commissioned and receiving instruc- 

Scenery: An outdoor scene with a mountain in the 

Action: Moses (OT68) is seen placing his hands on 
Joshua's head while he kneels (OT71) before him. 
Joshua (OT69) is now to be the new leader of 
the Israelites. 
Scene II: (Jericho is conquered.) 

Scenery: An outdoor scene. The walls of Jericho 
(OT73) are seen in the background. 

Action: Joshua (OT71) is seen kneeling before the cap- 
tain of the host of the Lord. (OT70.) He is receiv- 
ing his instructions. Next the army and the hosts 
of Israel (OT75 and OT72) are seen marching be- 
fore the walls of Jericho. The priests (OT74) fol- 
low the soldiers, blowing their trumpets. The walls 
of Jericho fall (remove them) and the Israelites 
march into the city. 

Library File Reference: Joshua. 


We revere those hardy souls who first broke the 
trail that is now our highway. We say, "Blessed is 
the glory of our Pioneers." And this is good, but 
not enough. 

Where are our unexplored wildernesses today? 
In a world so completely inhabited that paved roads 
or well-charted airlines can carry us safely almost 
anywhere, is there need for pioneering? May we 
suggest that, for each life, the whole future is un- 
charted, unbroken, unexplored territory. Somewhere 
"out there" lies hidden danger, entrapment, thirst, 
and a "promised valley." 

The Pioneers taught us to prepare, to keep our 
powder dry, to carry reserves, and to think always 
of the goal. 

Today, our way may lie through schools, a mis- 
sion, military service, a series of jobs, temple mar- 
riage, and leisure time. Each person must chart his 
own course, win his own way, and "get there." The 
Church can help him as it did more than a century 

(For Course 29, lesson of September 15, "Why Is Man Here?") 

ago in days of covered wagons and handcarts. It 
offers inspired leaders, exercise to build strength of 
character, protection of fellow companions, and vi- 
sion of a "promised valley." Pioneering is finding our 
trail, today, and pursuing it with courage and a will 
to win. — Lorin F. Wheelwright, Associate Editor. 

Library File Reference: Living. 



Any lively boy can tease and be a general pest by 
dumping his little sister into the big, wide ocean — or 
the fish pond. But it is more fun — and much, much 
safer — when he helps her have a "fun time." As long 
as they live, these children will remember with delight 
the day at the beach — or in grandpa's big yard — 
when they took turns riding in the ship or playing 

We have more fun when we play together! 

— Kenneth S. Bennion. 

(For Course 1. lesson of September 29, "We Are Learning 
To Be a Kind Brother or Sister.") 
Library File Reference: Family Life — Play. 



For those who seek a closer tie with their 
Heavenly Father in a quiet hour of worship, we 
present a new hymn on the theme of reverence. 

"Oh, May My Soul 
Commune With Thee 


by Lorin F. Wheelwright 1 

Have you ever asked yourself, "Why did John 
come to church today? Why did Mary come? What 
brought Susie?" Without full understanding, one can 
only speculate on the reasons; and there are many. 
Some people may come because they seek compan- 
ionship with their friends, and Church offers a social 
meeting ground. Some may come because they are 
bored and hope for a "lively" meeting with a few 
good laughs (they are really seeking entertainment). 
Some may come because parents ordered them there. 
Some may come to make a good impression on neigh- 
bors. We know that many come out of habit; and 
some come with a feeling of joy about life; 
some come to worship God, to find surcease from 
worldly turmoil, to smother the fires of anxiety, 
and to find peace of soul. 

Those who come to worship come to seek the 
Lord, and for them the worship service is a sacred 
hour that must be kept holy. For them, "... the 
hour cometh, and now is, when the true worshippers 
shall worship the Father in spirit and in truth: for 
the Father seeketh such to worship him. God is a 
Spirit: and they that worship him must worship 
him in spirit. . . ." (John 4:23, 24.) 

Troubled Souls Turn to God in Worship 

Every Sunday many people attend the worship 
service because they are troubled. They hear the 
voice of God calling to them in the words of Isaiah: 
"Comfort ye, comfort ye my people. . . ." (Isaiah 
40:1.) To those who suffer injustice, Isaiah promises 
that a new Jerusalem shall arise; "... and the voice 
of weeping shall not be heard in her, nor the voice of 
crying." (Isaiah 65:19.) "They shall not build, and 
another inhabit; they shall not plant, and another 
eat: for as the days of a tree are the days of my peo- 
ple, and mine elect shall long enjoy the work of their 
hands. . . . And it shall come to pass, that before 
they call, I will answer; and while they are yet 

speaking, I will hear." (Isaiah 65:22, 24.) They 
realize the strength born of true religion where su- 
perhuman reality fortifies their will to meet the frus- 
tration of mere human effort. 

True Worship Is a Communion of Spirit 

Worship is an experience of conferring together, 
of conversing intimately with one's Maker. True 
worship of God excludes all rivals. Adoration of idols, 
images, or men is prohibited. God cannot be bought 
by splendor, ceremonies, and sacrifices. God cannot 
be deceived by a mask of piety, false claims, and 
hypocrisy. God demands righteousness and truth. 
He condemns a worship which is sacrilegious be- 
cause it is false. 

Worship brings man face to face with the mighty 
works of God, and the foremost of these is the crea- 
tion of man himself; and related thereto is man's 
own destiny. Under the blessed hand of the Al- 
mighty we exist, and in His image we were created. 
As we contemplate this reality we find a oneness with 
the Most High. As we contemplate the wonderful 
kindness and holy demands of God, we review in our 
minds those covenants which bind man and God in 
a common cause. As we partake of the holy emblems 
of the Sacrament and join in the prayers of commit- 
ment, the word of God sinks deeply into our souls, 
strengthening our faith, arousing our hopes, awaken- 
ing our love, inspiring our determination for service 
— to become in reality servants of God. Such is the 
power of true worship and the hold it has upon the 
sincere believer. 

A Sunday School superintendent related to the 
writer that he and his wife have become discour- 
aged with the thoughtlessness of those who come to 
church for other reasons than to worship. As an 

(For Course 24, lesson of September 29, "Sabbath Day Observ- 
ance"; and for Course 29, lesson of October 13, "The Sabbath Day.") 

*Lorin F. Wheelwright is chairman of The Instructor Committee 
and associate editor. He has authored a number of articles in this 
publication and has edited several of the convention issues. Three 
of his hymns have appeared in previous issues: "Help Me Teach 
with Inspiration," "Go Forth Together Believing," and "Star Bright." 
He holds the Ph.D. degree from Columbia University and heads a 
lithographing and publishing company in Salt Lake City. 

JULY 1963 


antidote, they have resolved to attend more funerals. 
They have found that here can be found a commun- 
ion of spirit. Here are troubled souls seeking God, 
and there is full accord by all who attend. The sa- 
credness of the hour is not violated by thoughtless 
levity, noisy sociability, or careless preachment. With 
the purpose of spiritual communion uppermost, these 
people have found a spirit of worship in the memorial 
service conducted to comfort the bereaved. 

Some Things Hinder Worship 

As we contrast a beautiful memorial service and 
a so-so worship service, what is it that most frequent- 
ly destroys spiritual contemplation? It can be any- 
thing which intrudes material thought in place of 
spiritual thought. Such intrusions can be the distrac- 
tion of people on the stand moving about, conducting 
business, conversing, whispering, or otherwise divert- 
ing attention from holy matters. It can be someone 
opening and closing windows, or doors, or rattling pa- 
pers, or any other annoyance which is disturbing to 
see or hear. It can be words spoken which destroy 
rather than build spiritual thoughtfulness. People 
who intrude their personalities upon contemplation 
destroy worship. A musical director can unwitting- 
ly build a rehearsal around himself instead of the 
music and message of the hymn. It is well for all 
who speak or lead to remember: "He who would 
make God prominent must keep himself out of sight." 

Some Things Help Worship 

We can be grateful to the architects who design 
our chapels to enhance worship. They make it easy 
to find a seat without disturbing others; they con- 
struct the chapel to induce thought rather than busy- 
work with eyes or tongue. They design the room 
acoustically so that everyone can hear and no one 
need shout. They provide musical instruments which 
blend with a religious atmosphere. They use taste 
and refinement so that nothing projects worldly ideas 
upon the congregation. 

We can be grateful to presiding officers who plan 
in advance. They dismiss previous meetings, such 
as prayer meetings, in time so that all who should 
attend can enter the worship service early. They 
prepare printed bulletins to carry announcements. 
They organize the greeting and seating of worship- 
ers so that hushed voices are used at the door, and 
only the friendly gesture and nod of the head are 
used in the chapel. They remove before the service 
any irreverent signs which may be well-intentioned 

but distracting from religious thought. They enter 
the meeting hall early and sit down, and do not get 
up again nor move about. For these leaders we can 
be grateful because they help us concentrate on 
spiritual thoughts. 

We can also be grateful to all speakers who con- 
fine their remarks to spiritual subjects and do not 
provoke profane laughter or call attention to em- 
barrassing mishaps. We can pray for speakers to 
radiate spirituality, to quote scripture with deep 
feeling and understanding, and to invite participa- 
tion (assuming that everyone wants to worship and 
that this is not a mere exercise but can be, and should 
be, a deeply moving experience). 

We can be grateful to the organist who plays 
hymns in the spirit of the music and text, and to 
the director who helps us join together in more fer- 
vent musical and religious expression. 

We can be grateful to the bishops who teach the 
young men of the Aaronic Priesthood to prepare the 
sacrament table with dignity and care prior to the 
beginning of the prelude. We can join all other wor- 
shipers by contributing to the singing of hymns, to 
an audible "Amen" at the end of prayers, and to 
quiet contemplation of all that is said and done. 

Let Us Renew Our Resolve To Worship Reverently 

True reverence comes from a humble heart seek- 
ing the Spirit of God. It is not mere compliance with 
external forms. In our various callings, we can teach 
our students the meaning of worship and the most 
acceptable forms of behavior; but most of all we can 
set a good example as parents, teachers, leaders, and 
members. Our own sincerity will light the way and 
our own actions will inspire others. As we feel the 
presence of our Saviour, we will be reverent. 

As an aid to this resolve, we present a hymn, 
written and dedicated to a reverent spirit of worship. 
It was written in contemplation of our inner desire 
for peace amid trouble, for a "quiet hour," and for a 
holy atmosphere where, "I may hear Thy Still Small 
Voice, and Lord, with Thee commune." It may be 
sung in the homes of the Saints, in prayer meetings, 
and as a supplication during a worship service. It 
may be sung by a solo voice, a small group, or the 
whole congregation. The value of this hymn lies in 
its simplicity and its direct petition for spiritual com- 
munion with the Spirit of God. We hope it may 
inspire an attitude of worship and reverence in our 
religious devotions. 

Library Pile Reference : Worship. 



Oil, May My Soul Commune with Thee 








1. Oh, may 

2. Oh, bless 

3. En - fold 

4. Oh, like 

my soul com - mune 

me when I wor 

me in Thy qui 

a dove, de - scend, 

with Thee, And 
ship Thee, To 
et hour, And 
I pray, And 












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ke mj 

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r hea 

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7 tU] 

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— • 

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l - c 




rid - ly ca 

may he 

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y my soi 






com - 


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— ? 









of fear, Please bring me sweet 
Small Voice, And, Lord, with Thee 

on Thee, And Thy sweet Spir - 
with Thee, And find Thy ho - 




* ' 4: 

re - lease. 

com - mune. 

it find. 

ly peace, 




Copyright 1959 by Pioneer Music Press, Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Used by permission. 

The Deseret Sunday School Union 

Geobge R. Hill, General Superintendent 
David Lawrence McKay, First Assistant General Superintendent; Lynn S. Richards, Second Assistant General Superintendent; 
Wallace F. Bennett, General Treasurer; Paul B. Tanner, Assistant General Treasurer; Richard E. Folland, General Secretary 


George R. Hill 
David L. McKay 
Lynn S. Richards 
Wallace F. Bennett 
Richard E. Folland 
Lucy G. Sperry 
Marie F. Felt 
Gerrit de Jong, Jr. 
Earl J. Glade 
A. William Lund 
Kenneth S. Bennion 
J. Holman Waters 
H. Aldous Dixon 
Leland H. Monson 
Alexander Schreiner 
Lorna C. Alder 
A. Parley Bates 

William P. Miller 
Vernon J. LeeMaster 
Claribel W. Aldous 
Eva May Green 
Melba Glade 
Addie L. Swapp 
W. Lowell Castleton 
Henry Eyring 
Carl J. Christensen 
Hazel F. Young 
Florence S. Allen 
Beth Hooper 
Asahel D. Woodruff 
Frank S. Wise 
Clair W. Johnson 
Delmar H. Dickson 
Clarence Tyndall 

Wallace G. Bennett 
Addie J. Gilmore 
Camille W. Halliday 
Margaret Hopkinson 
Mima Rasband 
Edith M. Nash 
Minnie E. Anderson 
Alva H. Parry 
Bernard S. Walker 
Harold A. Dent 
Paul B. Tanner 
Catherine Bowles 
Raymond B. Holbrook 
Joseph Fielding Smith, Jr. 
Lorin F. Wheelwright 
Fred W. Schwendiman 
Lewis J. Wallace 

Clarence E. Wonnacott 
Lucy Picco 
Arthur D. Browne 
J. Roman Andrus 
Howard S. Bennion 
Herald L. Carlston 
O. Preston Robinson 
Robert F. Gwilliam 
Dale H. West 
Bertrand F. Harrison 
Willis S. Peterson 
Greldon L. Nelson 
Thomas J. Parmley 
Jane L. Hopkinson 
Oliver R. Smith 
G. Robert Ruff 

Anthony I. Bentley 
Mary W. Jensen 
John S. Boyden 
Golden L. Berrett 
Marshall T. Burton 
Edith B. Bauer 
Elmer J. Hartvigsen 
Donna D. Sorensen 
Calvin C. Cook 
A. Hamer Reiser 
Edgar B. Brossard 
Robert M. Cundick 
Clarence L. Madsen 
J. Elliot Cameron 
Bertrand A. Childs 
John R. Halliday 
James R. Tolman 

Richard L. Evans, Howard W. Hunter, Advisers to the General Board 

JULY 1963 


Prepare For 
Teacher Training 


The limiting factor in Sunday 
School class work is trained teach- 
ers. Now is the time to set the 
stage for an adequate number of 
prospective teachers to attend 
your teacher-training class begin- 
ning September 29! 

This call is to every stake, mis- 
sion, ward, and branch Sunday 
School superintendent in the 
Church. Let us not fail our pre- 
cious children with untrained or 
poorly trained teachers. 

To help you get the most bene- 
fit and success from your teacher- 
training class, the following steps 
are suggested: 

1. Plan now, in July, to begin 
the new teacher-training class on 
September 29. In the event you 
cannot have your class called in 
time to start September 29, by all 
means get the class underway as 
soon as possible thereafter. Chil- 
dren are hungrily awaiting good 
teachers to show them the way 
to go. 

2. If a professionally trained 
teacher is available, ask the bishop 
(or president) to call him as the 
teacher trainer. If not, the best 
teacher in the ward should be 
called and set apart by the bishop 
for this most important work a 
month before the training course 
begins. He should be provided with 

the teacher- training text and 
teacher's guide. A member of the 
ward superintendency and a spe- 
cially delegated stake board mem- 
ber should meet with the course 
teacher several times before class- 
work starts as a correlating com- 
mittee to plan for class observation 
and practice teaching by the train- 
ees during the regular Sunday 
School class period. This group 
should also meet at least monthly 
during the progress of the course, 
at the call of the teacher trainer, 
who may be chairman of the group. 
3. Carefully canvass the mem- 
bership of all adult classes for pro- 
spective teachers and prepare and 
submit a list of prospective trainees 
to the bishop not later than Sep- 
tember 3. The number of prospec- 
tive trainees should be at least 
equal to 40 per cent of the member- 
ship of the ward Sunday School 
faculty. These trainees are to be 
especially called by the bishop or 
branch president (see The 1961 
Sunday School Handbook, Chap- 
ter 11) and, hopefully, set apart to 
become Sunday School teachers. 
Prospective teachers in other auxil- 
iary organizations should be given 
the same attention. Neither age 
nor years of service should bar any 
suitable adult from such call. 
However, it is suggested that train- 

ees be allowed to complete at least 
two of Courses 16, 17, 18 and 19 
before being called for teacher 

4. That there may be no lost 
time, enough teacher- training texts 
to supply each trainee should be on 
hand September 29. An excellent 
text, Teaching the Gospel, and a 
teacher's guide are provided. They 
are on sale at the Deseret Book 
Company, 44 East South Temple 
St., Salt Lake City 11, Utah, for 
$1.25 for paper-bound copies and 
$1.75 for the clothbound edition. 
The teacher's guide is 50 cents a 

5. At the first meeting of this 
2 7- week course, and frequently 
thereafter, the class should be ad- 
vised that a suitable "award of 
completion" will be given to all 
trainees who meet the standards 
set up by the Sunday School Gen- 
eral Board. These standards should 
be explained to the class. Please 
read The 1961 Sunday School 
Handbook, page 58, for details of 
this plan. 

The wise administrator looks 
ahead and makes ample prepara- 
tion well in advance for the success 
he later achieves. 

— General Superintendent 
George R. Hill. 

Budget Fund Sunday September 15 

The Church is growing. There 
were, at the end of 1962, 3,556 
Sunday Schools in 364 stakes of 
the Church with 1,666,667 mem- 
bers enrolled and 2,051 Sunday 
Schools in the missions of the 
Church with 239,991 members en- 

It costs money to do the many 

things the Deseret Sunday School 
Union must do to keep the Sunday 
Schools of the Church properly 
functioning. Manuals, teachers' 
supplements, preparation meeting 
helps, roll books, Sunday School 
handbooks, and extensive corre- 
spondence are among the many 
costly things the General Board of 

the Sunday School is providing. 

The First Presidency of the 
Church has authorized and direct- 
ed the Deseret Sunday School 
Union to collect ten cents from 
every member of the Church with 
which to meet these costs, and has 
instructed us to keep within the 



On July 10, 1963, General Sec- 
retary Richard E. Folland will have 
mailed to all stake superintendents 
the budget fund quota of each 
ward based upon the membership 
of April, 1963. 

The stake Sunday School super- 
intendent is therefore instructed to 
have collections made of ten cents 
from all members of each ward and 
branch. Each stake should retain 
20 per cent of the amount collect- 
ed for stake board expenses and 
send the 80 per cent to the General 
Secretary of the Deseret Sunday 

School Union, 135 South State 
Street, Salt Lake City, 11, Utah. 

If it would help in making the 
collection to issue envelopes, they 
may be ordered from the Deseret 
Book Company, 44 East South 
Temple St., Salt Lake City 11, 
Utah. They will cost 35c per hun- 
dred. The Sunday School General 
Board will pay half the cost. 

The ward bishop may prefer to 
have the Sunday School budget 
taken from the ward budget. That 
practice has been approved. 

If the bishop concurs, the ward 

superintendent may collect an- 
other 5 cents per capita for ward 
Sunday School expenses. 

It is recommended that the bud- 
get fund collection be planned at 
the August Sunday School Super- 
intendents' meeting, and so organ- 
ized that the entire stake collec- 
tion will occur September 15. If 
certain stakes would prefer an- 
other date, they should confer 
with General Secretary Richard E. 

— General Superintendent 
George R. Hill. 

Memorized Recitations 

for Sept. 1,1963 

To be memorized by students in 
Courses 7 and 13 during July and 
August and to be recited in the 
worship service September 1. (ta- 
ken from A Uniform System for 
Teaching Investigators) . 

Course 7: 

(This scripture applies to faith 
in the Gospel and to missionary 

"And he said unto them, Go ye 
unto all the world, and preach the 
gospel to every creature. He that 

Answers to Your Questions 

believeth and is baptized shall be 
saved; but he that believeth not 
shall be damned." 

—Mark 16:15, 16. 

Course: 13 

(This scripture applies to the 
resurrection. ) 

"And the graves were opened; 
and many bodies of the saints 
which slept arose, and came out 
of the graves after his resurrection, 
and went into the holy city, and 
appeared unto many." 

—Matthew 27:52, 53. 


Sept. 15, 1963 

Sunday School 

Budget Fund Sunday 

Sept. 29, 1963 
Suggested Date To Begin 
Teacher-training Classes 

Oct. 4, 5, and 6, 1963 

General Conference 

Oct. 6, 1963 


Sunday School Conference 

Are Teachers Set Apart? 

Q. Are Sunday School teachers to be set apart? 

A. Sunday School teachers are to be set apart, 
when proper, by the bishopric. Where necessary, 
refer the bishopric to The General Handbook of In- 
structions, No. 18. It reads: "Auxiliary officers are 
chosen, interviewed, called, and following the sus- 
taining vote of the ward membership, are set apart 
by the bishopric. Workers in the auxiliary organi- 
zations may be nominated by the auxiliary heads and 
should be interviewed, approved, and when proper 
set apart by the bishopric. Auxiliary leaders should 
not contact new workers until the bishopric has is- 
sued the call." 

Where Does Hymn Practice Come? 

Q. Should the hymn practice come before or after 
the Sacrament? 

A. If it is a regular Sunday School worship serv- 
ice, the hymn practice would precede the Sacrament 
service. If a special program is conducted such as 
on Easter, Christmas, or Mother's Day, the Sac- 
rament may immediately follow the opening of the 
Sunday School, with the balance of the time allotted 
to the special program. (See Handbook pages 25-30 
and 79.) 

— Superintendent Lynn S. Richards. 

JULY 1963 


When Children Come 

by Reed H. Bradford 

It was one of my best friends on the telephone. 
"My wife has just given birth to our first child," he 
said. "This is one of the best moments in life," he 

It is indeed. For many years of married life, 
I had lived under the impression that I would never 
be a parent although both my wife and I wanted 
children as much as we wanted anything in life. But 
those years had brought a great blessing. When 
one is denied something, he often appreciates it 
more. I often thought to myself how fortunate an 
individual is to have children, and I spent years 
reflecting how I would have treated them had my 
wife and I been privileged to have them. 

One day in the midst of this reflection, a great 
thought occurred to me: One ought to treat his chil- 
dren the way he thinks his Heavenly Father would 
treat them if He were with them here upon the earth. 

(For Course 29, lesson of September 8, "Begotten Sons and 
Daughters"; for Course 27, lesson of September 1, "Applying Your 
Teaching"; and for Course 24, lesson of July 7, "Parental Obliga- 

How does our Heavenly Father treat His children? 
To answer that question I began studying the scrip- 
tures. I reflected on the meaning of the principles 
He had revealed to His children. I knew it was im- 
portant to try to make them a part of one's life. 

Then, when we knew that it was a possibility that 
we would have a child, we sat down together and 
tried to determine what should be some of the ob- 
jectives that we should have toward that child. The 
first thing that impressed us was that we should do 
everything that we could to help it achieve the po- 
tential foreseen for it by our Heavenly Father. We 
wanted it to understand His teachings. We wanted 
it to live them and to love them. 

We knew that our own behavior would be a pow- 
erful factor in determining whether or not we 
achieved this goal. Would we be able to establish 
proper rules of discipline? Would we be able to be 
patient when the child is impatient? Would we 
continue to love and respect him as a person when 
he made mistakes? Would we tend to impose our 

What will the future hold for this newly arrived infant? 
With loving parents and helpful brothers and sisters, he 

is off to a good start. As he grows older he will learn 
many things of great worth, especially about the Gospel. 




own goals upon him without considering his inter- 
ests and abilities? Would we give him the general 
impression that we are disappointed when he does 
not receive high marks in school, although we realize 
that he has done his best? 

Would there be conflicts between our words and 
actions? Would we give him opportunities to make 
intelligent and wise decisions? Would we really listen 
to him when he speaks? Would we be able to con- 
trol our emotions so that we would not "take out" 
on him (because he is younger and our child) our 
own feelings of inadequacy? Would we use positive 
means of motivating him by complimenting him and 
letting him know how much we love him? 

Would we share some of our innermost feelings, 
opportunities, disappointments, and joys with him 
in the spirit of genuine friendship? Would we pro- 
vide him with opportunities to release tensions in 
legitimate ways? Would he be able to come to us 
about any problem he may have? Would he know 
that even though his mistakes would hurt us, we 
would, nevertheless, try to help him without con- 
demning him, to assist him in discovering better ways 
of behaving? Would we be able to reject one of his 
actions and still accept him with all of our love? 

We knew that in order to be the kind of parents 
we desired to be, we would have to grow ourselves 
and satisfy some of our own needs. We determined 
that we would learn as much as we could about hu- 
man relations. We knew that one of our best sources 
would be the teachings of the Saviour. 

We thought that if we were really going to help 
our child achieve his potentials that we would do 
two things regularly. When the child was old enough, 
we determined that we would hold, every Sunday 
that we could, a family hour in which we would dis- 
cuss some important teachings of the Saviour. We 
would not only discuss them, but we would carry 
on other activities which would build their meaning 
in our lives. 

The other thing that we decided we would do 
as parents would be to take advantage of the "teach- 
ing moments." We felt that everyday would present 
an opportunity arising from the normal experiences 
of living to make clear the meaning of an important 
principle of the Gospel. In order to recognize such 
moments, we ourselves would have to understand 
those teachings. 

Now my wife and I have become parents. It is 
impossible to describe the joy this has brought to us. 

Over 14 years have now passed since Mary, our 

oldest child, first came into our home. Since then, 
five others have also come. It has been as rich an 
experience as we have ever had. We are still learn- 
ing how to become the parents that our Heavenly 
Father intended that we should be. But we have 
experienced a rich and lasting joy — the joy of being 
a partner with our Heavenly Father in the develop- 
ment of these children who are also our brothers and 

We have known other joys too: the joy of 
a rich companionship; the joy of being loved by our 
children; the joy of personal growth (theirs and 
ours) ; the joy of giving without thought of reward 
and finding many blessings being given in return; the 
joy of knowing that in affecting the lives of our chil- 
dren we are also affecting, indirectly, everyone whose 
life is touched by them. 

There is one sorrow which comes with a family; 
we realize that one day they will leave our home and 
create homes of their own. This is as it should be, 
but we realize the opportunity for the day-to-day 
intimate association will be gone. This is one of 
the difficult things about life. But our faith tells 
us that in the life to come it will not be necessary to 
end such close associations. For this faith,, we are 
deeply grateful. 

Library File Reference : Family Life. 




Hymn: "Holy Temples on Mount Zion," Hymns — 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, No. 
63.— Family. 

Discussion: What each family member learned in his 
last Sunday School class and how he will apply it 
in his life. 

Musical Number. 

Lesson: "When Children Come." 

Perhaps the parents might discuss some of the 
objectives that they had in having their children. 
Perhaps they might ask the children the ways in 
which they, the children, feel that the parents have 
been successful in achieving those goals. Are there 
ways the children feel they might do better? Per- 
haps also the parents might discuss with the chil- 
dren some of the difficulties they have discovered 
in being parents. 

It might be useful to ask some of the children who 
are old enough how they would handle certain prob- 
lems of parenthood. Children often see things from 
only one point of view: a child's point of view. It 
is often useful to try to see it the way the parents 
see it. 

Song: "Forgiveness," The Children Sing, No. 83— Chil- 

Scripture Memorization: The family will memorize 
John 15:12. 

Hymn: "How Gentle God's Command," Hymns, No. 
67— Family. 

Closing Prayer. 

JULY 1963 



Holy Temples on 
Mount Zion" 

Senior Sunday School Hymn for the Month of September 

"Holy Temples on Mount Zion"; 
author, Archibald F. Bennett; 
composer, Alexander Schreiner; 
Hymns — Church of dgsusChrist of 
Latter-day Saints, |No. 6£p 

The temples of trie uhurch are 
the holy places for the faithful. "I, 
Nephi, did build a temple; and I 
did construct it after the manner 
of the temple of Solomon, . . . and 
the workmanship thereof was ex- 
ceeding fine." (2 Nephi 5:16.) In 
recerit years the Lord has instruct- 
ed the Prophet Joseph Smith: 
"And verily I say unto you, let 
this house be built unto my name, 
that I may reveal mine ordinances 
therein unto my people; for I^eign)= 
to reveal unto my church, . . . 
things that pertain to the dispen- 
sation of the fulness of times." 

(Doctrine and Covenants 124:40, 

We are a temple-building peo- 
ple, just as the faithful have always 
built holy temples in former dis- 
pensations of the Gospel. Shortly 
after the Pioneers arrived in the 
Salt Lake Valley, President Brig- 
ham Young designated a spot with 
his cane to be the site of a Temple. 

To the Chorister 

Let us sing this fine hymn with 
due stateliness and lively spirit. 
The lively spirit is derived from 
the correct tempo, beating 108 
beats per minute. We recommend 
that choristers do more than just 
guess at this proper tempo, that 
they consult a metronome either 

privately or at preparation meet- 
ing. We achieve the stately qual- 
ity by keeping the tempo steady 
and under good control. 

To the Organist 

This is a vigorous hymn and 
hymn tune. Let the organ match 
the singers in power. No voluptu- 
ous tremolo is heard in the congre- 
gation; let none be used in the 
organ tone. By means of a good 
tempo kept steady, of tonal 
strength, of steady, non-tremulant 
tone, we are able to give expression 
to the desirable qualities of vigor, 
strength, inspiration, authority, 
grandeur, and even (sublimity^ 

— Alexander Schreiner. 

(The hymn for October will be, "In Humil- 
ity, Our Savior," Hymns, No. 49.) 

Some Hints on Playing the Organ Pedals 

Here are the basic instructions needed by young 

1. For accuracy in playing, keep heels and knees 
together as much as possible. When both feet are 
needed to play the pedals, the feet, touching at the 
heels, make a compass that helps in measuring short 
distances. With the knees touching, we have a larg- 
er compass which gives us a ready guide for larger 

2. A somewhat different way to teach the above 
leg position is to ask that the leg be held in a direct 
straight line to the pedal that is to be struck. Ob- 
serve that, when the knees are spread, the leg with 
its foot makes a crooked line toward the key, mak- 
ing it difficult to estimate the position of the de- 
sired pedal key. Men, especially, are prone to hold 
their knees apart, because they wish to look between 
the knees to see the pedals. If they will keep their 
knees together, they will not need to look, because 
the compass effect will guide them to the pedals. 

3. Sit well back on the bench for good bodily 
support. Then lean the body forward rather than 
backward. This is more comfortable and is helpful 
in playing the pedals. 

4. I have rather recently observed a very bad 
habit among young organists. This consists of try- 
ing to find the position of the keys by first putting 
the toe in the wide spaces between some of the black 
pedals. This is useless motion, and I should like to 
disapprove of it with vigor. Rather than putting toes 
between black keys, take a good look with the eyes. 
Play the keys directly, but never search for their 
position with useless motions between the black 

5. Most easy music will naturally be played 
mostly or exclusively with the left foot. I have no 
objection to a "left-footed" organist. This merely 
means that he plays easy music. Most hymns will 
have their basses played with the left foot alone, or 
nearly so. This is natural, because the desired bass 
notes are on the left end of the pedalier. A nice, 

(legato) pedal bass is beautiful at times, and this is 
more easily possible when the right foot helps out 
in needed places. 

6. In general, I would play the pedals between 
the first and second "F." The notes below this first 
"F" are likely to growl unmusically when used too 
much. We should know that the Contrabass of the 



orchestra goes only to the "E," and the bottom 
string is not used at all steadily. Refrain from play- 
ing the lowest notes often; then on occasional special 
use they will sound very impressive and grand. 

7. Recently I have heard young organists refer 
to the "foot-pedals." This is a redundancy, because 
it really means "foot-foots." What is meant in such 
a term, of course, is "pedal-keys," or just "pedals." 

8. Play the pedals only about half the time. 

Give them a rest when playing soft. Then, after a 
rest, they will be all the more effective when they 
come into use again with louder music. 

9. The organ pedals provide the subbass for the 
organ just as the contrabasses do for the orchestra. 
These latter are sometimes referred to as being not 
only low-down, but also bass and viol. 

— Alexander Schreiner. 

Library File Reference: Musio — Instruments. 

Junior Sunday School Song for the Month of September 

"Forgiveness"; composer, Fran- 
ces K. Taylor; The Children Sing, 
No. 83. 

While the song, "Forgiveness," 
is new to children in the Junior 
Sunday School, forgiveness itself 
is included in their lesson material. 
To forgive involves an inner, per- 
sonal feeling. It has to do with 

the phrase-method, using the in- with a slight attack or emphasis 

terval-beat pattern. on the first notes of each beginning 

It is important to indicate the phrase. 

long notes or three-count notes by Notes of the right hand are com- 

the voice as well as by the hand posed mostly of two-note chords 

when teaching the song. that are written a third apart. 

After the song is learned, the The sound is always pleasing to 

children may listen to the number 
as it is played by the organist. 

wrongs done by others against Later, the chorister may change to 

oneself. We are taught to be kind 
to one another and: ". . . thou 
shalt love thy neighbour as thy- 
self. . . ." (Leviticus 19:18.) 

The song has a simple, flowing 
melody. The words of the first 
verse are pronounced easily and 
are familiar to boys and girls. The 
second verse strengthens the mes- 
sage of the first verse, and may be 
sung by the older children of the 
Junior Sunday School while the 
smaller children listen. 

Both organists and choristers 
should observe how the tied notes 
are used in the song. When the 
first verse is sung, they should be 
observed as written. In the second 
verse there is a syllable to be sung 
on each of the tied notes. 

To the Chorister 

The song is composed of four 
four-measure phrases. It should 
be sung at a moderate tempo and 
with a slight rhythmic accent on 
the first count of each measure. 

After the first verse has been in- 
troduced by the chorister or a 
group of older boys and girls of the 
Junior Sunday School, by singing 
it through several times while the 
children listen, the meaning of 
each phrase may be discussed. 
Then the song may be taught by 

the conventional 
when conducting 

beat pattern 
the song with 

To the Organist 

The melody of the song should 
have a feeling of smoothness when 
it is played. It is suggested that 
each melody note within each 
phrase be played legato, which 
means to be well-connected. Play 

the ear. The left hand actually 
plays an accompaniment to the 
melody. Let us give a little em- 
phasis on the first note of each 
measure, and play the second and 
third notes lightly and less con- 
nected than the melody part. 

This is a number that organists 

should enjoy playing, and one that 

children will like to hear and sing. 

— Florence S. Allen. 

(The Junior Sunday School song for Octo- 
ber, 1963, will be, "Hosanna"; author, Rita 
S. Robinson; arranger, Chester W. Hill; to be 
printed in August issue of magazine.) 

September Sacrament Gems 

For Senior Sunday School 

"By this shall all men know that 
ye are my disciples, if ye have 
love one to another." 1 

^John 13:35. 

For Junior Sunday School 

Jesus said: 

"Blessed are the peacemakers: 
for they shall be called the chil- 
dren of God." 2 

2 Matthew 5:9. 


Organ Music to Accompany September Sacrament Gems 

Darwin K. Wolford 



*h 1 1 x \. 












JULY 1 963 


When the children became "stage-struck" 
and wanted a little theater of their own . . 

The Barn 

w The Barnacle 


by Rose and R. Kendall Thomas 

as told to Harold H. Jenson 
historian of the Old Folks Committee 

One of the earliest "Little Theaters" in America 
was begun in Salt Lake City about 1895 by Richard 
Kendall Thomas, early English convert who copied 
scripts for the Salt Lake Theater when he first came 
to Salt Lake Valley. Brother Thomas converted a 
brick barn into a playhouse, and his wife named it 
The Barnacle. 

The small theater was built to "appeal to the 
cultural side" and also to be "a recreational center 

(For Course 11, lesson of September 15, "Early Drama in the 
Church"; for Course 7, lesson of September 15, "Pioneer Life in 
Utah"; and for general reading.) 

for the development of the neighborhood children as 
well as my own," said Brother Thomas. At the time 
the theater was built Brother Thomas was a Salt 
Lake City merchant with a family of several "stage- 
struck" children. 

The barn, vacated when Brother Thomas sold 
his horses and vehicles, was moved closer to the 
Thomas house. Its hayloft was cleared, making a 
gallery on three sides to seat 50 persons. The buggy 
shed was made into a pit; and the stage, built over 
the horse stalls, had extra space for dancing. 

Dressing rooms were at first a problem. The girls 
had to dress in their home and enter the stage 
through a window. Later, however, a dressing room 
was added, complete with a table, chairs, and a 

The theater's main floor seated about 100 per- 
sons and was heated by a coal stove. The chairs to 
seat the audiences were loaned. A real attraction 
was the large Grand Piano, which Brother Thomas 
had brought across the plains. 

The Barnacle was the scene of plays, costume 
and Halloween parties, and dances; it served as a 
rendezvous for children of the neighborhood. Gen- 
erally, more girls took part than boys. 

The first plays were termed "originals" by those 
who wrote them. Blanche Thomas, one of the chil- 

A New Book for Sunday School Musicians 

Just off the press is a new book 1 of delightful 
and helpful reading for Senior Sunday School 
Choristers and organists. Entitled Worship in 
Song, it is written by Dr. Clair W. Johnson, a 
member of the General Board of the Sunday 
School and chairman of the Department of 
Music at Weber College. 

Dr. Johnson writes in an inspirational style. 
He covers both the worshiping and technical 
aspects of our Sunday-morning assignments in 
the realm of music. There are eleven chapters 
under the headings: "Why Do We Sing?" "The 
Chorister and Organist as Teachers of the Gos- 
pel," "Leadership," "The Training and Prepar- 
ation of Chorister and Organist," "Conducting," 
"Tempo in Hymn Singing," "Expressive Con- 
ducting," "The Hymn Practice," "Measuring 
the Results," "A Training Program for Young 
Choristers and Organists," "Preludes and Post- 
ludes," and "Introductions and Interludes." 

— Alexander Schreiner. 

^-Worship in Song, by Clair W. Johnson; published by 
Deseret Book Company, 44 East South Temple St., Salt Lake 
City, Utah; 83 pages. Sent postpaid for 75 cents (plus 3 cents 
state tax for Utah residents). 


God make my life a little light, 
Within the world to glow; 
A little flame that burneth bright, 
Wherever I may go. 

God make my life a little flow'r 
That giveth joy to all; 
Content to bloom in native bow'r, 
Altho' the place be small. 

God make my life a little song 
That comforteth the sad; 
That helpeth others to be strong, 
And makes the singer glad. 

— Matilda Betham-Edwards. 

^From Second Year Music by Hollis-Dann, 
published by American Book Company. Re- 
printed from Little Stories in Song, 1940 edi- 
tion; Deseret Book Company, Salt Lake City, 
Utah; page 15. 

(For Course 1, lesson of October 20, "We 
Are Learning To Be Kind Everywhere"; and 
for lessons on service to one's fellow men.) 
Library File Reference : Gospel Living. 



A scene from an original play by the Thomas children. (L. 
to R.) Kate, Blanche, Elbert, Alice McLaughlin, and Rose. 

Exterior of "The Barnacle," a brick barn that had been con- 
verted into a neighborhood theater to' delight the children. 

dren, wrote plays in the early days of The Barnacle 
and later became well-known on Broadway. She 
now resides in New York City. 

Others taking part were Channing Pollock, later 
one of America's great playwrights; Chester Ames, 
who became a writer; the Lindsay sisters; and others. 

Male employes of the R. K. Thomas Dry Goods 
Co. put on a minstrel show, with the interlocutor 
in white satin and others of the cast in black attire. 
On another occasion the girls put on a play and 
divided the receipts among charities, insisting that 
the taking in of money made them professionals. 

The Barnacle was probably the home of Utah's 
first puppet show. Blanche Thomas dressed up dolls 

and spoke all the parts. She manipulated her dolls 
by means of a forked stick operated behind a curtain. 

The Barnacle was used for many years. William 
McLaughlin, Pioneer carpenter, constructed the 
stage; and a New York artist painted the scenery 
and the arch. Prominent local personalities such as 
Horace G. Whitney, Deseret News drama editor, 
dropped in occasionally to see the amateurs; and 
Maud May Babcock of the University of Utah re- 
hearsed players there. 

Though The Barnacle has passed on, many recall 
the happy hours spent there, and as Shakespeare 
said, ". . . Thereby hangs a tale." 

Library File Reference: Theater. 

Interior view of the stage of "The Barnacle" showing a pros- 
cenium arch. Scenery had been painted by New York artist. 

One of the wonders of "The Barnacle" was that in addition 
to having chairs for the audience there was a balcony, too. 

JULY 1963 

The Blessings I Give My Child 

Bless Me" 

by Paul Cracroft* 

History records few scenes of family solidarity 
as impressive as when Jacob called together his sons 
to bless them. (Genesis 49.) 

Although age had dimmed his eyesight, Jacob's 
spiritual vision was never keener as he sketched for 
his sons what should befall their descendants even 
to the last days. On that occasion, twelve men — 
their strengths and weaknesses starkly delineated 

(For Course 24, lesson of September 8, "Naming and Blessing 
Children"; and for Course 13, lesson of September 29, "Helps to 
Safety and Happiness.") 

*Having served as an officer and teacher in virtually all auxil- 
iaries, Brother Cracroft now serves on the high council of the 
University Stake. He is executive secretary of the University of Utah 
Alumni Association, and holds B.A. and M.A. degrees from the U 
of U. Brother Cracroft has also worked as U of U assistant director 
of Public Relations, press secretary to Senator Wallace F. Bennett 
(Utah) , and reporter for The Salt Lake Tribune. He is married to the 
former Kathryn Storrs, and they have six children. 

to their father — received the divine blueprint for the 
perpetuation of God's chosen family. Their destiny: 
greatness for the few sons who lived up to their 
promised blessings and responsibilities; oblivion for 
the rest, because they chose to be children of Israel 
only in name and not in deed. 

Jacob's uncanny ability to read the character 
of his individual sons was, of course, directly re- 
vealed to him. But Jacob had prepared himself to 
receive the revelation and to respond to the heaven- 
inspired impressions made upon his mind and spirit. 
As a father, he must have grieved as he interspersed 
timeless blessings on his faithful and righteous sons 
and with near cursing upon the heads of those who 



had rebelled or would do so. He knew that much of 
the spiritual heritage of the world had been en- 
trusted to him and to his family. As a prophet-leader 
who could hear the death rattle in his own throat, he 
had to speak to them in unmistakable clarity, no 
matter how painful the charge. 

Few men are Jacobs. But many of the men in 
the Church today share Jacob's birthright of Priest- 
hood. They have the privilege of naming their sons 
and daughters and of blessing them often. Naming 
and blessing little children gives them a proper moral 
and spiritual start in life, and serves to dedicate 
them to the Lord. 

Babies have come so recently from the presence 
of God that blessings pronounced upon them are 
beyond their infant powers of comprehension. How- 
ever, my faith is simple enough to permit me to 
believe that the Holy Ghost can call to remembrance 
enough of a father's blessing to inspire and guide 
the child properly until his baptism. So, the blessing 
really is lost neither on the child nor on the father. 

This two-part ordinance is — and should be — far 
more than a mere christening ritual. A Latter-day 
Saint father who sees an approaching opportunity 
to name and bless a child should tighten up his 
"spiritual gear" and prepare for a soul-searching trip. 
If he conscientiously tries to live by the word of the 
Lord, if in his own way he will wrestle with the 
Lord as Jacob did, a father should receive guidance 
as to what he can promise his child. 

As part of his preparation, he can evaluate some 
of the critical decisions that are likely to confront 
his son or daughter in years to come. He can exercise 
his Priesthood by blessing his child with the power 
to make the proper decisions at the proper times: to 
seek baptism, to welcome advancement in the Priest- 
hood, to prepare for missionary service, to protect 
his or her virtue at all cost, to choose eternal mar- 
riage over civil, to serve the Church loyally but not 
blindly, and to put on the name of Christ in every 

While taking measures to bless my children to 
these ends, I have necessarily scrutinized my own 
progress, and naturally I have found spiritual "soft 
spots." This self-examination has been good for me, 
and it has made me doubly conscious of both bless- 
ing and trying to train my children against falling 
into my mistakes. 

Many an LDS father can date his conversion, re- 

pentance, or reactivation from the moment that he 
sincerely desired to become worthy to bless a child. 
Thus, a newborn — or perhaps even unborn — child, 
in its need to be blessed, can itself bless a home. 

The naming of a baby provides an excellent op- 
portunity for an LDS father to seek for himself and 
his wife some special assistance from the Lord. Few 
parents can deny that modern-day pressures demand 
divine help in child rearing. What better time to 
plead for that help than when the infant is formally 
presented to the Lord? 

As with many experiences in the Church, one 
of the rich rewards of naming and blessing a child 
is an attendant increase of fatherly humility. No re- 
sponsible man who loves a child can look into that 
face without pondering both the happiness and heart- 
ache which lie ahead. Happiness can outweigh heart- 
ache, if a wise father and an innocent child will rely 
on the Lord for help. 

This reliance is the beginning of humility. Al- 
though "humility" has its roots in the Latin word 
for "earth," I prefer to think of it as connected not 
with the dirt of the earth but with the solid rock. 
The truly humble men of history have been men 
of strength. The strong but humble man refuses 
to close his spiritual ears to the guidance of the 
Spirit. Instead, like Jacob, he will promise and bless 
in terms which may have meaning beyond his own 
understanding. Thus, a blessing can foster humility 
and inspire a congregation. 

I cannot recall the words I have used in blessing 
my six children. But I can recall the joy that each 
of these occasions has brought to me and my wife. 
We have glimpsed for a few precious moments some- 
thing of the eternal power and glory of the Plan of 
Salvation and have appreciated — if only in small 
measure — the matchless joy of purposeful creation. 

As I have tried to point out, naming and blessing 
a child can stimulate faith, stir up candid self -inven- 
tory, provide occasion for a unified family appeal 
to the Lord, reactivate the lukewarm, increase hu- 
mility, and dust off the windows of heaven. Coupled 
with the obvious benefits which accrue to the child, 
the salutary effects of naming and blessing children 
in the Church stamp this ordinance as one never 
to be taken lightly. For who would willingly deprive 
himself and his loved ones of rich blessings from on 

Library File Reference: Babies, Blessing of. 

JULY 1963 



The Harvest 
Can Be Rich 

by David Ensign Gardner* 

Success in finding the records of ancestral fam- 
ilies results from a study of four major items that 
must be considered in the use of genealogical 
sources. These are: 

1. The type of records that are of genealogical 

2. The amount of genealogical detail they give. 

3. The specific periods of time they cover. 

4. The places of deposit. 

Theoretically, a study of the records will help 
us appreciate the uses to which they may be placed; 
but the whereabouts of records and their availa- 
bility also is of prime importance. 1 

Normally it is not possible to develop an an- 
cestral line in the British Isles unless the precise 
town in which the ancestor was born or had resi- 
dential connections is known; such a place would 
be a good starting place to seek records of the fam- 
ily. Sometimes research might be commenced if 
the county only is known, but rarely is it possible 
to succeed when all that is known is that the an- 
cestor came from England or Wales. 

It is from July 1, 1837, to the present that all 
births, marriages, and deaths registered locally in 
England and Wales have been centralized with a 
master index at the General Register Office, Somer- 
set House, London. 2 If an ancestor — or one of his 
close relatives such as a brother, sister, parent, or 

(For Course 21, lessons of July 7 and 14: "Characteristics of 
Records in England and Wales"; for Course 13, lesson of September 
15, "Genealogy"; and specially for those who are doing research in 
England and Wales.) 

* Brother Gardner is a member of the research staff of the 
Genealogical Society and presently chairman of the Evaluation Com- 
mittee for records being processed for the Church's genealogical 
computer program. He is a Fellow of the Society of ^Genealogists, 
London; and he teaches advanced genealogy technology in the 
General College, Brigham Young University. Brother Gardner is also 
coauthor of the textbook, Genealogical Research in England and 

Genealogical Research in England and Wales, (Genealogical 
Society of the Church, Salt Lake City, Utah), vol. 1 (fifth edition, 
1962) and vol. 2 (1963) are the official texts for this field. Volume 2, 
chapt. 9, "The Counties of England and Wales," lists every county 
with its jurisdictions, parish registers, bishop's transcripts, marriage 
licenses, probate records, nonconformist registers, and important 

Applications by correspondence have to contain a prepaid fee 
of $1.65 for each entry requested. 

even a cousin, uncle, or aunt of the same line — was 
either born, married, or died at some unknown 
place in England and Wales after July 1, 1837, 
there is some hope of finding a record that might 
pinpoint the town and county concerned. 

If the place of the event is unknown it is useless 
to request a search by the General Record Office for 
the record unless there is information as to the full 
and correct spelling of the name, and the exact date 
of the event. In the case of a birth record, the par- 
entage must be stated, and in the case of a marriage 
the name of the spouse. In searching for a record of 
death, information of the probable age and occupa- 
tion at the time of death and relationship of the de- 
ceased to his next-of-kin must be stated. In cases of 
this unusual nature it is wise to employ a reputable 
record searcher, 3 as the officials at the General Reg- 
ister Office, London, are not obliged to make searches 
when the information as to the exact locality where 
the event took place is not known. 

Another index relating to the whole of England 
and Wales is that of the post-1858 probate records 
that are kept at the Principal Probate Registry, 
Somerset House, London. The annual indexes, 
1858 to 1958, are available on microfilm at the 
Genealogical Society in Salt Lake City, at 107 South 
Main Street. Locating an index reference about 
a member of an ancestral family might open a new 
avenue of research. 

These fairly modern indexes, however, are later 
than the records required to find traces of ancestral 
connections of earlier generations. Generally, rec- 
ords prior to 1837 are not conveniently centralized, 
and it is access to these records that makes for 
success in genealogical research. 

Boyd's Marriage Indexes, mentioned in Chapter 
16 of the Genealogical Sunday School manual for 
1963, is the kind of index that is helpful in all sorts 
of problems. Mr. Boyd's work is an attempt to 
"centralize" information by means of an index, be- 
cause he realized that when marriage records of 
ancestors can be found, extensions to the pedigree 
might be made. To illustrate the value of a marriage 
index, let us consider the pedigree problem of Joseph 
Calfe. He came to America from London, as it is 
said, with his parents Robert and Mary (Trace) 
Calfe. Robert died in 1719 at 71 and was therefore 
born about 1648, somewhere in England. 

The Boyd's marriage indexes for London — in- 
cluding Middlesex, Essex, Norfolk, and Suffolk 4 — 
were searched, and the following reference to a 

^Information on reputable record searchers might be requested 
from the Public Information Deoartment of the Genealogical Society, 
Salt Lake City, Utah. 

4 Information on the contents of Percival Boyd's partial marriage 
indexes will be found in Genealogical Research in England and 
Wales, vol. 2, chapt. 9, pages 200-203. 



marriage was found in the Suffolk county index: 

"1670 — Calfe, Robert & Maria Trace [married 
at] Bacton." 

The parish registers of Bacton disclosed the full 
entry of marriage and the christenings (births) of 
two of their children. No record of birth for Rob- 
ert Calfe was found in Bacton registers. 

In the quest for a further lead on the Calfe 
ancestry, it was recalled that in the thirteenth cen- 
tury commissioners were appointed by the king to 
list the names of all able-bodied men between 15 
and 60. Eventually this led to the compilation of 
Muster Rolls for the county militia. These rolls 
give an almost complete census of the male popu- 
lation. Many dated in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries have survived, a large number being kept 
at the Public Record Office in London, some in 
county record offices, 5 and a few in private custody. 
The Muster Rolls for 1638 for County Suffolk con- 
tain 24,000 names, and have been printed under 
the title of Able Men of Suffolk, 1638. 6 

The christening of Robert Calfe, born about 
1648, was neither found at Bacton nor in several 
nearby parishes. A search in the publication Able 
Men of Suffolk, 1638, disclosed persons of the sur- 
name of Calfe as follows: 



Names of Able-Men 

Robert Calfe, Joseph Calfe, Jerom 

William Calfe. 

The parish registers of both these places were 
searched with the result that the christening of 
Robert Calfe was found recorded in 1648 at Stan- 
stead, Suffolk. 

If the British ancestor is said to have been a 
soldier his name might appear in the printed official 
army lists. The first one was published in 1740, and 
since 1754 they have been printed annually. They 
contain the names of officers only. If the ancestor 
was not an officer it is necessary to find the name 
of the regiment in which he served before military 
records can be successfully used. 7 

One of the most fruitful sources of pedigree in- 
formation are the pre- 1858 records of the probate 
courts. The principal courts were the Prerogative 
Courts of Canterbury and York; and the minor 
courts consisted of 28 Episcopal Consistory courts, 
a number of Archdeaconry courts, as well as many 
courts of what is known as Peculiar Jurisdiction. The 
British Record Society and many county record 

societies have published indexes (known as calen- 
dars)** to the names of persons whose wills were 
proved, or estates administered, through these courts, 
providing a valuable source relating to the where- 
abouts of ancestral families. 

According to family records, John Bernard Hou- 
seal and his wife Frances came in 1802 to Prince 
Williams Parish, South Carolina; but their origin in 
England was unknown. In an effort to find a con- 
necting link, the records of the Prerogative Court 
of Canterbury, London, were searched from 1800 to 
1812.° The calendar for 1810 disclosed the name, 
"Frances Houseal, deceased." The documents were 
read and disclosed that she was the late wife of John 
Bernard Houseal of Prince Williams Parish, where 
she died Dec. 13, 1805. Her husband had previously 
been a druggist in Streatham, Surrey, England. Fur- 
ther perusal disclosed that she had been a beneficiary 
under the will (dated September 14, 1797) of her 
father, the late Henry Sloggett of Plymouth Dock, 
Devonshire, and lately of Bodmin, Cornwall, Eng- 

Many probate court calendars or indexes contain 
scattered references to persons who died in America, 
in the British Commonwealth, or in foreign coun- 
tries, but who possessed property in England and 
Wales. Note the following examples taken from such 

1630 Year Book of Probates, Prerogative Court of 
Canterbury, London. 

WATERS, Edward, of Elizabeth City in Virginia 
but deceased at Hormead, Herts., left will 
with administration, 6 October 1630, and pro- 
bate granted to Mary Dymocke during the 
minority of her nephew John Huett. 
1801 Calendar of the Episcopal Consistory Court of 

DAVALL, John, of Savannah in North America. 

References such as these usually lead to the 
discovery of records relating to ancestral families. 

The value of any genealogical record lies in the 
information it contains. It is obvious then that there 
is a great deal of genealogical value in the types 
of records discussed in this article. The use of these 
records, as well as a whole host of other sources, is 
dictated by the period of time of the pedigree prob- 
lem, making necessary a knowledge of the periods 
of time for which the various sources are available. 
This field of genealogical research in England and 
Wales can produce a rich harvest. 

5 The whereabouts of the records of the 52 historic counties of 
England and Wales and of the Isle of Man will be found in the cited 
textbook, chapt. 9, together with a statement regarding the county 
record offices. 

G Banks, Charles E., Able Men of Suffolk 1638; Anglo-American 
Records Foundation, 1931. 

7 Navy, Army, Militia, Merchant Shipping and allied records are 
discussed in the cited textbook, chapt. 7. 

8 A11 printed calendars and indexes for English probate courts 
are listed in the cited textbook, chapt. 9. 

"These pre-1858 records are on microfilm at the Genealogical 
Society. All the manuscript calendars, indexes, and registers of wills 
and act books have been microfilmed. Some of the loose documents 
have also been microfilmed. 
Library File Reference: Genealogy. 

JULY 1 963 


Although the Great Salt Lake Valley appeared like a wasteland to some, the natural forage 


What plant life was there when the Pioneers 
reached Utah? How did it affect their way of life? 

The first impressions of the Pioneers as they 
entered Salt Lake Valley in 1847 varied with the 
viewers. Clara Decker Young, wife of Brigham 
Young, later stated, "When my husband said, 'This 
is the place,' I cried, for it seemed to me the most 
desolate in the world." 

To others, the view was much more favorable. 
When Orson Pratt and Erastus Snow saw the valley 
on July 21, they reported that they "could not re- 
frain from a shout of joy . . . the moment this grand 
and lovely scenery was in our view." Wilford Wood- 
ruff wrote, "We gazed in wonder and admiration upon 
the vast fertile valley spread out before us — clothed 
with a heavy garment of vegetation." William Clay- 
ton mentioned the richness of soil and abundance of 
high, good-looking grass. 

Orson Pratt, Willard Richards, and George A. 
Smith explored the valley and reported a scarceness 
of timber and sage; but "in many places the grass, 
rushes, etc., are ten feet high and no mire. Feed 
abundant and of best quality." Others mentioned 
abundance of grass in many areas of Utah. Sage- 
brush was present, but not nearly as much as now. 
William Clayton recorded in July, 1847, ". . . The 
wild sage is very plentiful on the other side of the 
valley, showing that the land is not so rich there as 

(For Course 7, lesson of July 21, "This Is the Place"; for 
Course 11, lesson of September 29, "Importance of Livestock to 
Pioneers"; and to enrich Courses 7 and 11 lessons which describe 
Utah as the Mormons found it.) 

Parley P. Pratt journeyed south through Utah in 
1849 along the general route of today's U. S. High- 
way 91 and repeatedly recorded that the country 
was "rich in bunchgrass." He occassionally mentioned 
that he saw cedar (juniper) and clumps of cotton- 
wood trees. He described Mountain Meadows, north 
of St. George, as "1,000 to 1,500 acres of meadowland 
spread out like a green carpet." 

Wheatgrasses, especially bluebunch wheatgrass, 
was the dominant bunchgrass; and the tall grass was 
very probably giant or Great Basin wild rye. 

The Pioneers grazed their livestock on the rich 
grass, and in places they cut it for hay. Grass was 
a major asset, and livestock grazing has always been 
a prominent industry in Utah and other Western 

The "desolate valley" impression doubtless re- 
sulted from the dried condition of the grass and 
sparsity of trees. There were some cottonwood trees 
and such brush as willows and wild rose along the 
streams, but trees were scarce. The Pioneers had 
come from the midwest and eastern states where 
trees and green grass were common. The valleys 
of Utah suffered by comparison. 

Overgrazing Effects Plant Changes 

Changes in plant cover began within a few years 
as a result of overgrazing. In a Conference address 
on Oct. 7, 1865, Elder Orson Hyde stated, "I find 
the longer we live in these valleys that the range is 
becoming more and more destitute of grass. . . . 



and great potential was apparent to others 


Where grass once grew luxuriantly, there is now 
nothing but the desert weed." 

Hamilton Gardner in his History of Lehi said, 
"The settlers found the surrounding country cov- 
ered to some extent with bunchgrass and meadow- 
grass, far more than in later times." He mentioned 
decreasing forage due to increasing grazing until 
"... the herds were compelled to seek new regions." 

Plant species compete for soil moisture, soil nu- 
trients, sunlight, and growing space. Plant food is 
not taken from the soil ready for use, but must be 
manufactured in the green leaves. Livestock like 
some plant species better than others, just as people 
have preferences for some foods. When the more 
palatable and better soil-protecting plants are over- 
grazed, they weaken and die out; soon they are re- 
placed by less desirable plant species, and the den- 
sity of plant cover is decreased. The top soil is 
eroded away, deep gullies form, the soil absorbs and 
holds less moisture, and growing conditions for plants 
become poorer. 

As a result of these processes, the more palatable 
grasses, shrubs, and herbs on mountain ranges — such 
as wheatgrasses, bromegrasses, bitter brush, and birch 
leaf mountain mahogany- — have been partially re- 
placed by such plants as yarrow, wild geranium, nig- 
gerhead, porcupinegrass, and tarweed. In the foot- 
hills and valleys such plants as sagebrush, juniper, 
cheatgrass, and various annual weeds have increased 
and spread to replace the bunchgrass. On the desert 
ranges the desert bunchgrasses, white sage or winter- 

fat, bud sagebrush, and black sagebrush have given 
way to increased amounts of shadscale, greasewood, 
Russian thistle, rabbitbrush and the poisonous hal- 

With depletion of the original plant cover, floods 
from summer storms become increasingly frequent. 
The floods damaged roads, bridges, homes and 
farms; and the eroded topsoil filled canals and reser- 
voirs with sediment. In some places it became pro- 
gressively difficult for settlers to get water from the 
streams, subject to floods, into irrigation ditches. 

Domestic Uses of Plants 

Many native plants in the West were used by 
the Indians for food, clothing, shelter, and medicine. 
The blue camas, grass seeds, thistle stems, wild ber- 
ries, rose hips, yampa root, and pine nuts are ex- 
amples of cherished food plants. The Pioneers also 
used many of these plants for food. The sego lily 
was named Utah's state flower, because its bulbs 
were eaten by the hungry Pioneers. 

A number of plants common today were not 
growing here in 1847. These include cheatgrass or 
junegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, Russian thistle, dan- 
delion, halogeten, and crested wheatgrass which has 
been used extensively in recent years to reseed over- 
grazed ranges. These plants were brought here — 
some intentionally and some by accident; growing 
conditions are favorable, and they have flourished. 

The timber in the mountains is much the same 
today as it was in Pioneer times. Spruce, Alpine fir, 
and Limber pine are found at the higher elevations. 
In the middle zone of the mountains, Aspen, Doug- 
las fir, and white fir are the main species, though 
lodgepole pine covers vast areas in some locations 
(including the Uinta Mountains). Lower down, the 
ponderosa or yellow pine, juniper, pinyon pine, oak- 
brush, and bigtooth maple are the major species. 

The Pioneers were very dependent upon the tim- 
ber for fuel, and to build homes, places of worship, 
corrals, fences, and barns. 

Plant life has always been an indispensable re- 
source, and still is. It affects watersheds, forage for 
livestock, forage and cover for wildlife, lumbering, 
outdoor recreation, and scenic beauty. Let us ap- 
preciate it, enjoy it, and help preserve it. 

— Arnold R. Standing* 

*Brother Standing has served 40 \'z years in the U.S. Forest Service 
holding such important positions as assistant regional forester, forest 
supervisor, range examiner, and forest ranger in the Pacific North- 
west and Intermountain regions. He served the Church in a bish- 
opric, on high councils, in priesthood quorums, in stake YMMIA, 
and in Sunday Schools. Brother Standing received a B.S. degree in 
Botany from Utah State Agricultural College and also studied at 
Brigham Young Universty, University of Utah, and Montana State. 
He has authored a number of publications; and, during his long 
career with the Forest Service, he has pioneered range management 
studies and researched plant species. Grazing seasons on national 
forest lands have been determined through some of his work. He mar- 
ried Josephine Lindquist, and they have two sons and one daughter. 
Library File Reference: Utah — -Plants. 

JULY 1 963 




by Virgil B. Smith' 

Did you ever trip over a misunderstanding when 
you had only the best intentions? Such experi- 
ences make us realize that a misunderstood message 
can do severe damage in family life, or school, or so- 
cial life, or business, or government, or church. 

The chart on the opposite page and this article 
are only a small part of the meaning in the word 
communication. And each of the words here holds 
its own bundle of meanings. The problem always 
arises — will the reader select the meaning which the 
writer had in mind? 

A Challenge 

The point of communication is to send and re- 
ceive messages without a significant change in the 
meanings. That is likely to be a good trick, because 
human messages are subject to alteration by all sorts 
of barriers, such as the filter factors listed on the 

Too many of us suffer frequent frustrations from 
misunderstandings. No one can guarantee you free- 
dom from this misfortune; but real rewards can come 
from sincere, consistent, cooperative efforts. What 
can be done? We can become more familiar with the 
communication processes. This article and chart 
can't hold all the answers, but they can help. 
Consider the filters illustrated on the chart: 

The Sender and Receiver 

The first filter (1) and the final filter (11) indi- 
cate the need for both the sender and receiver of a 
message to have at least normal intelligence and 
enough basic common ground in the other intellec- 
tual factors to make communication between them 

The feeling filters (2 and 10) can each sabo- 
tage a message because of such personal factors 
as preoccupation, hostility, or transference (toward 
the sender) of feelings or attitudes which the re- 
ceiver has toward some other person. With some 
people, highly trained and skilled help may be need- 
ed to discover the particular psychological traits 
which may subconsciously prevent a particular idea 
from passing unchanged through the psychological 
filter. A message may easily be interpreted in such 
a distorted way that its sender could be offended, 
believing that the receiver could not possibly have 
misinterpreted it so much. There may be a close 
tie between the psychological factors and spiritual 
phenomena, but that is another story. 

The sender's physiological skills (3) also influ- 
ence the message. Putting a message into sound 
(words, music, and so on) or visual symbols (words, 
pictures) or other sensory signals (touch, motion, 
smells, tastes) require skills such as speaking, play- 
ing instruments, singing, writing, drawing, photo- 

(For Course 24, lesson of December 29, "Language Patterns De- 
termined in the Home"; for Course 27, lessons of September 15 and 
October 13; "Home and Sunday School — a Teaching Partnership," and 
"Human Relationships.") 

graphing, cooking, dancing, sign language for the 
deaf, Braille, and so on. The receiver's body (9) 
must have enough ability to pick up the message 
through hearing, seeing, smelling, tasting, and the 
feeling senses. 

The Message 

As for the form of the message (4), the great 
variety that is possible here is illustrated by the 
range of materials in each of the fields of literature, 
art, music, dance, and drama. You could ask: Is 
the sequence logical? Are words and phrases used 
with accurate meaning? Is it too abstract for the 
receiver? Is all of the message closely related to the 
subject? It it unduly long or complicated? Are 
there confusing grammatical errors? Is it in a form 
which satisfies the need? 

The arrangement of the message may be ex- 
pressed through audio, visual, or other signals. The 
audio signals (5) may hinder the message if they are 
not appropriate in volume, or in changes in pitch 
and quality of voice, or other audio factors. Visual 
signals (6), consisting of still or moving pictures, 
words, and so on, depend for their effectiveness on 
factors such as those shown in the chart. Other 
signals (7) include smell, taste, and acts of touch- 
ing (caressing, spanking, Braille writing, and so on). 

Outside Factors 

From outside of the sender and his message, there 
may arise other interferences. The environmental 
filter (8) can stop or alter all or part of a message 
by temporary factors not consciously caused by 
either the sender or receiver. It may be too dark 
or too light to see an otherwise clear picture; there ^ 
may be too much noise; the motion of a bus may »^r 
prevent the reading of a paper; unusual temperature 
or pressure or some other conditions may be too dis- 
tracting. And, of course, there are many possibil- 
ities of breakdown in the electrical or mechanical 
devices which may be involved in transmitting or 
receiving a signal. 

Improving Results 

Knowledge of potential distortions caused by 
these eleven filters can help avoid misunderstanding, 
but we should not overlook another tool — feedback. 
This consists of the sender comparing the content 
of his message with the response which it produces 
in the receiver. If there is no response, or not enough 
to judge by, the sender may do something to invite 
or provoke a response. Responses can greatly help 
the sender to evaluate failures or successes, and to 
make appropriate changes. 

If you want more efficiency and satisfaction, as 
well as less frustration and misunderstanding, re- 
member filter factors in communication; develop 
your awareness of the pitfalls; encourage coopera- 
tion and a warm sense of humor to smooth rough 
roads of give and take, and get help promptly when 
it is needed — whether the help needed is a profes- 
sional specialist or a dictionary. 

*Virgil Smith has ten years of experience working with these 
factors of communication, and more than six years of college, with 
B.S, and M.S. degrees from Brigham Young University, and addi- 
tional graduate study with a graduate certificate from the University 
of Utah. His present position is Production Editor of The Instructor 
magazine. Continuously active in the Church, he has held many 
positions in its organizations. Following military service during 
World War II, he completed a 2-year mission in the North Central 
States, where he was a district president. He married Geraldine 
Bearnson, and has two children. 
Library File Reference: Communication. 




A message from the sender may be affected by these filters before influencing a receiver. 


Intelligence, experience, concepts, memory, symbol vocabulary, attention. 


Personality, current feelings toward receiver, needs, emotional adjustment, feelings 

toward message, goals. 

Ability to produce signals through speech, writing, drawing, and other activities. 


Order, precision, concreteness, relevance, eloquence, simplicity, grammar. 


Audibility, clearness, fluency, inflection, pronunciation 



Color, shape, posture, perspective, legibility, spacing, spelling, punctuation, direction, 

speed, plane, change, duration, pattern. 


Concentration, distance, duration, repetition, impact, pressure, and so on. 


Distortion due to visibility, noise, temperature, pressure, movement, mechanical 

error, and so on. 


Ability to perceive signals through sight, hearing, and other senses. 


Personality, current feelings toward sender, needs, emotional adjustment, feelings 

toward message, goals. 


Intelligence, experience, concepts, memory, symbol vocabulary, attention. 


by Virgil B. Smith 

Second Class Postage Paid 
at Salt Lake City, Utah 

He Did His Homework 

Drafting the Constitution ... a dry little man was the hero 

He was a colorless ^isgjof a man. 
He was little over five feet, six 
inches tall and weighed not much 
over a hundred pounds. It was 
said that he never dressed in any- 
thing but black. 1 And he usually 
had but one suit at a time. 

Heavy brows hung over his blue 
eyes. Washington Irving once de- 
scribed him as "a withered little 
apple- John." His talk was dry and 
often boring. 

Some have said he really had no 
boyhood. He was not inclined to- 
ward sports. He was bookish. He 
was frail as a lad, and sickly as a 
young man. He was the eldest 
of twelve children. He was required 
to ck> little physical work amid the 
tall oak, cedars, and sumac — or 
among the peach and apple or- 
chards — of his father's Virginia 
plantation. Toil was for the slaves. 

There were 12 members of his 
graduating class at Princeton. Of 
them, he was the only one who 
took no part in the commencement 
exercises except to receive his di- 
ploma. He was deeply interested in 
religion, but his weak voice kept 
him from the pulpit. He loved to 
study law. But he never became 
a lawyer nor passed the bar. 

He was shy around women. At 
31 he fell in love. Then his fiancee 
broke off their engagement. He 
was a deeply wounded man. 
He was not married until he was 
43, taking a widow as his bride. 

He has never left an apt saying 
that has caught on with men. No 
anecdote about him has lived with 
the masses. His name is known, yet 
few men know his story. 

But he was a chosen man. He 

(For Course 5, lesson of September 1, 
"Pure in Heart"; for Course 9, lesson of Octo- 
ber 20, "A Leader Is a Champion of Liberty"; 
and for general reading.) 

Tadover, Saul K., The Complete Madison, 
1953 edition; Harper & Brothers, New York, 
N.Y.; page 8. 

was "raised up" by the Lord to a 
mighty purpose. 2 Most men would 
probably agree with his biograph- 
er, Irving Brant, 3 that more than 
any other man he shaped the pres- 
ent government of the United 
States of America. 

He was James Madison, father 
of the Constitution. 

Where lay Madison's greatness? 
First, he was a man with a pure 
heart. John Witherspoon, presi- 
dent of Princeton when Madison 
was a student there, knew him 
well. (The entire Princeton faculty 
at the time consisted only of the 
president and three tutors.) Dr. 
Witherspoon said of Madison to 
Thomas Jefferson "that during the 
whole time he was under his tui- 
tion he never knew him to do nor 
to say an improper thing." 4 

Jefferson, an intimate friend of 
Madison for 50 years, described 
him as a man of "pure and spot- 
less virtue which no calumny has 
ever attempted to sully." 5 

James Madison was blessed 
with a brilliant mind and love of 
hard work. When momentous leg- 
islative contests were fought, Mad- 
ison generally won because he had 
done more homework than his foes. 
Sir August Foster, British min- 
ister to America, once wrote that 
Jefferson was more of a statesman 
and man of the world than Madi- 
son. "Yet the latter was better in- 
formed," Sir August added. 6 

Madison completed the regular 
course at Princeton in only two 
years. Often his sleep was but 
five hours a night. At only 24 he 
was elected to the Committee of 

2 Doctrine and Covenants 101:80. 

sBrant, Irving, James Madison (in three vol- 
umes) ; 1941, 1948, 1950; The Bobbs-Merrill 
Company, New York, N.Y. 

4 Padover, The Complete Madison, page 3. 

E Padover, The Complete Madison, page 6. 

a Padover, The Complete Madison, page 9. 

Safety in Orange County, Virginia. 
Committees of this kind provided 
the local government at the time 
British colonial power was crum- 

At 36, Madison represented Vir- 
ginia at the Constitutional Con- 
vention. Some of the world's finest 
minds were at that convention. 
Among them were George Wash- 
ington, Benjamin Franklin, Alex- 
ander Hamilton, and George Ma- 
son. When the convention's four 
months' work was completed, dry, 
scholarly James Madison emerged 
as the hero. He had drafted the 
Virginia plan for a union which 
foreshadowed the constitution 
which was finally adopted. 

One of Madison's greatest tri- 
umphs came a year later. The 
Constitution was up for ratifica- 
tion by Virginia's convention. Op- 
posing adoption were political 
giants Patrick Henry, one of Amer- 
ica's great orators and governor of 
Virginia during the Revolutionary 
War; James Monroe; George Ma- 
son; and Richard Henry Lee. Mad- 
ison led the forces in support of 
the Constitution. He debated the 
issues with Henry. Again and 
again the recorder of the debates 
made entries such as this: "Here 
Mr. Madison spoke so low that he 
could not be distinctly heard." 7 

But Madison was armed with 
facts. Despite a mousy voice, he 
drove Patrick Henry and opposi- 
tion to the Constitution to defeat. 

James Madison, a pure-hearted 
man, had done his homework. 

— Wendell J. Ashton. 

7 Brant, James Madison, Vol. 1, page 100. 
Library File Reference: Madison, James.